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Data depth based nonparametric scale tests for hypothyroidism – Triiodothyronine Levels in Athyreotic Individuals During Levothyroxine Therapy

Thyroid levels are a critical component of determining the cause of low metabolic energy.

A study from Japan had shown that mixed cord blood is a good sampling technique for screening of congenital hypothyroidism [ 15 — 17 ]. The independent variables TNMnumber of hidden neurons, and output are shown. Google Scholar. Prognostic significance of extrathyroid extension of papillary thyroid carcinoma: massive but not minimal extension affects the relapse-free survival. Ethiop Med J.

  • The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

  • By observing this fact on a depth vs depth plot DD-plotwe propose nonparametric multivariate two sample tests for scale… Expand. Citation Type.

  • Autoimmun Rev 13 —7. Furthermore, microcalcification and taller shape were proven to be negatively associated with the misdiagnosis rate of Inception-v3 in both univariate and multivariate analyses.

  • All sets were partitioned strictly according to the criteria: images that belonged to the same patient were assigned to the same set. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Subclinical hypothyroidism during valproic acid therapy in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. The impact of Lithium on thyroid function in Chinese psychiatric population. Pharmacopsychiatry ; 43 : — Large-scale recurrent data would allow for a more clinically useful ANN to be derived that could be used to predict disease recurrence instead of survival.

Thyroid dysfunction during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Ann Cepth Y Acad Sci. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. There were no differences in blood pressure, pulse rate, deep tendon reflex relaxation, or any other physical examination findings, other than the absence of palpable thyroid tissue, in postoperative patients compared with their preoperative state.

General notions of statistical depth function. Has PDF. View 1 excerpt. Motivated by the work of Gastwirthwe propose k sample percentile modifications of Liu and Singh's proposals.

Share This Paper. Nonparametric two sample tests for scale parameters of multivariate distributions. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Among the 1. Kaplan—meier, marginal or conditional probability curves in summarizing competing risks failure time data? The training function embodies the equation that is in charge of the weight modification. Then, these two hyper-parameters were applied to the training process. AbbVie Inc.

Dtaa of both sexes aged 18 to 65 years were recruited from patients referred to the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, for total or near-total thyroidectomy for goiter, nodular thyroid disease, suspected thyroid cancer, or known thyroid cancer. Google Scholar Download references. The overall network accuracy was seen reduced to The worldwide incidence was reported to range from eight to 46 cases per 1, each year depending on different inclusion criteria in various studies.

Publications

Different ROI expansions adopted for annotated nodule images of different sizes. By applying the FS algorithms to the seven variables used for MLP-1, the three aforementioned variables were identified as the ones with the greatest prognostic power and used to train MLP Bipolar Disord ; 11 Suppl. Hidden in plain sight: bias towards sick patients when sampling patients with sufficient electronic health record data for research.

View 2 excerpts, cites methods. Ann Stat. There needs to be sufficient detail to do this but not so much detail that the scale becomes too cumbersome. Methods Citations. View 2 excerpts, cites background.

  • High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: lack of association with lithium exposure. One possible reason was that the ROI of small nodules contained less features than big nodules.

  • View 2 excerpts, cites background. By looking at values relative to optimal and each other on a common scale, one can obtain a clearer picture of what is going on.

  • It was thought to be impossible to discern whether symptoms developing since LT 4 initiation were due to recent major surgery, thyroid cancer treatment, or the LT 4 therapy itself. In total, 1, nodules in 1, consecutive patients mean age,

  • Power of depth-based nonparametric tests for multivariate locations. I typically test for the following:.

Application of reference ranges, specific to other ethnic groups is clinically inappropriate nknparametric many biomarkers including thyroid function tests. The top, bottom, and middle lines of the boxes correspond to the 75th percentile, 25th percentile, and 50th percentile medianrespectively. Sapuppo, G. We trained a baseline DNN model using only the region of nodule and a modified DNN model using features of both nodule and parenchyma.

Br Med J. However, nonparamrtric T 4 concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with LT 4 therapy mean, 1. Then the aim of this study is to establish population specific reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triidothyronine levels of cord blood. The censor time was taken as the last event observed for a given patient. In total, 6, entries were used to train the network Table 2and it must be noted that the range of the group of alive patients good prognosis was changed from 10 to 7. Horm Metab Res Suppl. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry is generally known to be a more specific assay 34 and, at least in the case of FT 4 measurement, agrees better with equilibrium dialysis than immunoassay.

Shirke and S. View 5 excerpts, cites methods and background. View 1 excerpt, cites background. Publication Type.

  • For example, the use of administrative claims data entails a retrospective study design in which patients were neither randomized to treatment nor examined directly during a defined observational period.

  • View 3 excerpts, cites background and methods. Affine invariant depth-based tests for the multivariate one-sample location problem.

  • The Inception modules are all composed of several small convolutional layers and pooling layers. Med Care ; 44 : —

  • Nonparametric tests for multivariate locations based on data depth. Share This Paper.

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Replacement therapy for hypothyroidism with thyroxine alone does not tor euthyroidism in all tissues, as studied in thyroidectomized rats. Admittedly, another variable of a lower serum TSH level was also present in our patients with thyroid cancer. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 17 : — Deep learning is a part of ML and is a special type of artificial neural network that resembles the multilayered human cognition system.

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On the other hand, certain dsta conditions are also risk factors, but to a lesser extent as most thyroid cancer patients do not develop the disease due to inheritance or even have affected family members not covered in the database used. The T 3 concentrations were lower in the subgroup of patients whose therapy had not resulted in a TSH level of 4. Mussa et al. Gray RJ. TSH assay Sandwich immunoassay with total duration of assay of 18 min was used. However, we were unable to demonstrate different serum T 3 levels in patients treated with LT 4 therapy, when their therapy had been adjusted to achieve their target TSH levels, or when their TSH levels were less than 4.

Using CRR, a forward stepwise selection procedure was performed on the cohort, starting with a model that included sex, age, treatment, and thyroid testing rank, daata incrementally added the next most significant variable in predicting hypothyroidism risk among the aforementioned covariates. This allows age to be a dynamic influencer on prognosis that may change from patient to patient and be affected by the presence of differences in other variables, as opposed to nomograms that only identify static influences. However, 1 patient had a unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury requiring speech therapy. It is possible that temporal changes in variables such as laboratory assays, surgeon procedures, LT 4 formulation, and other factors could increase the variation in the measured hormones and thereby decrease the ability to detect changes in T 3 levels.

Background

Based on the K-S test result obtained the lognormalization was necessary. Table 2 Baseline characteristics. The FT 4 and T 3 levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassays. Patients who had a current or previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism were excluded from the study.

Create Alert Alert. DOI: Related Papers. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. It can be a line diagram or a table of lab values to visually depict how TSH, T4, and T3 relate to each other. Abstract 15 Citations 15 References Related Papers. Create Alert Alert.

Published in Nonparametric two scape tests for scale parameters of multivariate distributions A. Related Papers. Power of depth-based nonparametric tests for multivariate locations. Nonparametric tests for multivariate multi-sample locations based on data depth. A test based on data depth for testing location-scale of the two multivariate populations. Using the simplicial depth [Liu RY.

Three different MLP models were created and the captured clinical variables were used as input. Another crucial parameter is the NHNs. Baastrup PC, Schou M. CA Cancer J. Truven Health Analytics,

A test based on data depth for testing location-scale of the two multivariate populations. View 2 excerpts, cites background. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. DOI: It is an approximation. Methods Citations. Has PDF.

View 2 excerpts, references methods. Has PDF. M E ] 1 1 O ct 2 01 7 General notions of regression depth function. Dovoedo and S.

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Data depth can be used to measure the centrality or outlying-ness of the multivariate data point relative to data cloud. More Filters. View 3 excerpts, references background. View 4 excerpts, cites background.

Values of TSH analysis is summarized in Table 4 and it shows a comparable trend with other reports by various investigators across the globe. J Clin Nonpraametric ; 68 : — On the other hand, a high NHN could lead to overfit systems that are not able to generalize well for data that is external to the learning dataset. Computer-aided diagnosis has been rapidly developing. Three patients were withdrawn from the study after initiation. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 21 : —

  • These trends can be mainly attributed to an increase in incidence of well differentiated thyroid cancers WDTC and may be in part due to the increasing use of neck ultrasonography or other imaging modalities leading to early diagnosis and treatment 8.

  • View 1 excerpt. As stated earlier, this data can be critical in determining the cause of low metabolic energy.

  • We trained a baseline DNN model using only the region of nodule and a modified DNN model using features of both nodule and parenchyma.

  • Multivariate analysis by data depth: descriptive statistics, graphics and inference, with discussion and a rejoinder by Liu and Singh. Defining the Thyroid Scale.

  • The region of interest ROI of the lesions was annotated using four crossed calipers. Epilepsy Behav.

Remember that the optimal zone baded an approximation and that it is meant to be used as a rough guide. Data depth-based nonparametric scale tests. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. More Filters. General notions of statistical depth function. Robust nonparametric hypothesis tests for differences in the covariance structure of functional data.

A significantly lower mean T 3 was observed to be associated with the subset of postoperative TSH values more than 4. The independent variables, number of hidden neurons, and output are shown. Sign in to make a comment Sign in to your personal account. Zhao, Y. This Issue. Hamed SA. Treatment of even subclinical hypothyroidism may improve outcomes among patients with BD

It may be detected in patients with BD at a higher rate because of increased testing. Asian J Psychiatr ; 4 : — The number of positive lymph nodes, race, tumour size, and gender were identified as variables with less predictive value and were not included. Data for this calculation were generated from cross-sectional chart review examining the variation between T 3 levels in individual patients.

Methods Citations. I typically test for the following:. Nonparametric depth-based multivariate outlier identifiers, and masking robustness properties. On the relative scale, zero 0 reflects the optimal range. View via Publisher. Create Alert Alert. An Introduction to the Bootstrap.

View 2 excerpts, references methods and background. View 5 excerpts, references background. View 2 excerpts, references methods. On the relative scale, zero 0 reflects the optimal range. General notions of statistical depth function. Share This Paper.

Stip E, Tourjman V. Baseline DNN model learned only the nodule area. These anticipated adverse effects have led to recommendations for frequent thyroid testing of patients treated with lithium as data depth based nonparametric scale tests for hypothyroidism in recent UpToDate guidelines 24despite some negative findings 2526 Discussion Congenital hypothyroidism often causes irreversible mental retardation if thyroid hormone replacement therapy is not begun during the first few months of life. Article PubMed Google Scholar. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Main outcome measures The outcome was the cumulative incidence of clinically relevant hypothyroidism, as indicated by diagnosis codes SNOMED: and descendants and filled hypothyroidism prescriptions: thyroxine RxNorm: and descendantsdesiccated thyroidtriiodothyronine and thyroglobulinin the presence of the competing risk of ending monotherapy, adjusted for covariates.

Associated Data

Eur Thyroid J 9 4 — Table 1 Demographic and clinical information regarding the 25, thyroid cancer patients that met the requirements for the main modelling phase. Bipolar Disord ; 11 Suppl. Through iterative calculations, the network will learn to model the dynamic interactions of the variables

  • Therefore, the model cannot accurately distinguish follicular carcinoma from benign nodules.

  • Robust nonparametric hypothesis tests for differences in the covariance structure of functional data. General notions of regression depth function.

  • Cord blood was obtained after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery and the umbilical cord was ligated from the placental side. The lesion boundary is shown in Figure 2.

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  • The multivariate skew-normal distribution. On a geometric notion of quantiles for multivariate data.

Launch Research Feed Feed. Power comparison of data depth-based nonparametric tests for testing equality of locations. In the present work, we propose a nonparametric test for testing equality of location parameter of two multivariate distributions using notion of data depth. Share This Paper. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Sign in to save your search Sign in to your personal account. An input layer defined by a set of independent variables or nodes that are used to train the network. Total and free thyroid hormone concentrations in patients receiving maintenance replacement treatment with thyroxine. The images were randomly assigned, provided the distribution of size and TI-RADS scores was similar between the two groups. The sizes of different lesions varied because of differences between their real size and observed size. Despite documentation of LT 4 to T 3 conversion, there has long been interest in combining T 3 therapy with LT 4based on the premise that T 3 levels may be lower or inappropriately balanced in patients treated with LT 4. Lithium and thyroid.

Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 21 : tfsts In summary, we propose that the deep learning network Inception-v3 can be applied to facilitate the differentiation of PTCs in the clinic. Cancer Statistics, ANNs are exciting algorithmic tools that allow for an improved modelling of variable relationships that can be applied to cancer prediction research.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

The test group had images, and the sensitivity and specificity for Inception-v3 were Open in a separate window. Thyroidectomy was performed at Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, by a head and neck surgeon experienced in performing thyroid surgery.

Nonparametric tests for multivariate locations based on data depth. View 2 excerpts, cites methods. Semantic Scholar Semantic Scholar's Logo. On the robustness to symmetry of some nonparametric multivariate one-sample sign-type tests. Background Citations.

Nonparametric tests for multivariate locations based on data depth. Related Papers. Abstract 3 Citations 12 References Related Papers. Data depth can be dafa to measure the centrality or outlying-ness of the multivariate data point relative to data cloud. Statist Sci. In the case of TSH, the optimal zone is skewed far toward the low end of the standard lab Low-High range. On the relative scale, zero 0 reflects the optimal range.

  • Three patients were withdrawn from the study after initiation. Accepted : 05 March

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  • Figure 5 ROC curves for margin sizes of 0, 25, 50, 75, and pixels.

  • This implies that there is no need to establish gender specific reference intervals.

Background Citations. A test based on data depth for testing location-scale of the two multivariate populations. Background Citations. Abstract 15 Citations 15 References Related Papers. Launch Research Feed Feed.

Thyroid 24— Their gestational age ranged between 37 and 44 weeks. Pituitary ; 11 : — Published : 02 August Then the aim of this study is to establish population specific reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triidothyronine levels of cord blood.

Figure 2. Accepted : 20 July Despite the use of a weight-based calculation to determine initial LT 4 dose, widely differing serum TSH values were achieved postoperatively Figure 2 and Figure 4. The two cropping shapes are clearly shown in Figure 2and the corresponding resized images are shown in Figure 3.

  • The independent variables employed to train this model were age, race, gender, tumour size, primary disease extent, location of nodal disease, and number of positive lymph nodes Fig.

  • Nonparametric tests for multivariate multi-sample locations based on data depth.

  • Firstly, we wanted to analyse the effect of the different variables on the performance of the MLP classifiers.

  • Nodule size was our first concern. In total, 6, entries were used to train the network Table 2and it must be noted that the range of the group of alive patients good prognosis was changed from 10 to 7.

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DOI: Shirke and S. View 1 excerpt, references background. Nonparametric tests for multivariate multi-sample locations based on data depth.

  • A potential limitation of our study is that the patients with benign thyroid disease had varying amounts of remnant thyroid tissue. Interventions were performed between time points 2 and 3 thyroidectomy and LT 4 initiation and between time points 3 and 4 LT 4 adjustment.

  • View 4 excerpts, cites background. Multivariate analysis by data depth: descriptive statistics, graphics and inference, with discussion and a rejoinder by Liu and Singh.

  • Amin, M. Psychological wellbeing in patients.

Background Citations. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Background Citations. View 3 excerpts, cites background and methods.

We're open for all Medical and Dental services. As stated earlier, this data can be critical in determining the cause of low metabolic energy. Share This Paper. Publication Type. Shirke Published Mathematics Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods In this paper, a notion of data depth is used to propose nonparametric multivariate two sample tests for difference between scale parameters.

From the classic machine learning method jypothyroidism to the now prevailing deep learning model, the performance of the CAD system has greatly improved over time. And it was concluded that cord TSH had a better specificity and sensitivity as compared to cord or filter paper T4 at 3—5 days of age. Health status, psychological symptoms, mood, and cognition in L-thyroxine-treated hypothyroid subjects. The study contained 2 subgroups of participants.

Share This Paper. Robust nonparametric hypothesis tests for differences in the covariance structure of functional data. Power comparison of data depth-based nonparametric tests for testing equality of locations. The higher the number positive or negative on the relative scale the further the value is from optimal.

Affine invariant depth-based tests for the multivariate one-sample location problem. Power comparison of data depth-based nonparametric tests for testing equality of locations. DovoedoS. Multivariate L-estimation. View 1 excerpt, cites background. View 3 excerpts, references background and methods. View 10 excerpts, references background and methods.

Introduction

Citation Type. A test based on data depth for testing location-scale of the two multivariate populations. Abstract 3 Citations 12 References Related Papers.

  • Possible hypothyroidism associated with quetiapine. Central hypothyroidism.

  • An Introduction to the Bootstrap. View 1 excerpt.

  • Sonographic features such as microcalcification, solid composition, taller shape and irregular margin are considered typical for PTC. Second, patients with normal parenchyma can serve as a comparison to the HT patients in the test set.

  • That means more benign nodules will be misdiagnosed as thyroid cancer.

  • View 5 excerpts, cites methods and background.

  • Thyroid 25—

Power comparison of nonparametrkc depth-based nonparametric tests for testing equality of locations. DovoedoS. Small and T. By looking at values relative to optimal and each other on a common scale, one can obtain a clearer picture of what is going on. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. On a notion of data depth based on random simplices. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

  • Med Care ; 44 : — As can be noticed, all the metrics reveal solid results except for the precision and related F1 score or, in other words, the percentage of true positives among all those classified as positives.

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  • Seoul, Korea South Received : 29 March

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Therefore, patients should be regularly tested for clinical or subclinical thyroid abnormalities on all therapies and treated as indicated to prevent adverse effects of hormone imbalances on mood. Background The development and maturation of the brain and central nervous system and other target tissues have a critical dependence on thyroid hormones, beginning before birth and extending through the first 2—3 years of life. Mourad, M. One study from India reported the 97 th percentile result of TSH as Reference intervals for thyrotropin and thyroid hormones and ultrasonographic thyroid volume during the neonatal period in Turkey.

Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors. Accepted hypothyroiidsm 05 March Myxedema coma associated with combination aripiprazole and sertraline therapy. B, D ROC curves and performance metrics for different nodule sizes under normal subset. Guided by the cross-entropy loss, we can learn the neural network end to end using deep learning framework.

Multivariate analysis by data depth: descriptive statistics, graphics and inference, with discussion and a rejoinder by Liu and Singh. DovoedoS. Multivariate analysis by data depth: descriptive statistics, graphics and inference, with discussion and a rejoinder by Liu and Singh.

Table 4 depicts the TSH values of the entire participants. Kruskal, W. Email address Sign up. Table 2.

Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors. J Clin Psychiatry ; 68 : — A survey on feature selection methods. Clin 697—34 In some studies only changes in T4 were noticed, and not in TSH 7273and in other studies the hormone changes were transient, returning to normal after only 6 weeks of treatment without discontinuation of quetiapine Data were collected in primary care and hospital care settings across nearly every US county. Contra Cancrum 9—

Papillary thyroid carcinoma PTC is the predominant pathologic subtype of thyroid cancer. Wu, X. Maggs R. The second layer is a hidden layer, which is formed by artificial neurons where the bulk of the calculations take place.

  • This could also be explained by the influence of nodule sizes.

  • View 6 excerpts, cites background and methods. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.

  • Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Materials and Methods Study Design and Inclusion Criteria This study was a retrospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board, with waiver of informed consent.

  • Share This Paper. By observing this fact on a depth vs depth plot DD-plotwe propose nonparametric multivariate two sample tests for scale… Expand.

View 10 excerpts, references background and methods. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree ror the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. General notions of regression depth function. Save to Library Save. I typically test for the following:. Data depth can be used to measure the centrality or outlying-ness of the multivariate data point relative to data cloud. Methods Citations.

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Clin Chim Acta. Conclusions Thyroid abnormalities occur frequently in patients with BD regardless of treatment. Therefore, the model was not as confident in the diagnosis of small nodules as in the big ones. Wang, S. During the study period, reference ranges were approximately 0. Microlobulated or irregular margins were more frequently observed among benign nodules under heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma.

Affine hypothyroidlsm depth-based tests for the multivariate one-sample location problem. Share This Paper. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Thyroid levels are a critical component of determining the cause of low metabolic energy. View 1 excerpt. Publication Type.

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The first network MLP-1; Fig. Furthermore, as shown in Table data depth based nonparametric scale tests for hypothyroidismthe typical features of PTCs including solid hypoothyroidism, hypoechogenicity, the presence of microcalcification, nonsmooth margin and taller shape were analysed to identify their association with the misdiagnosis rate of Inception-v3. Therefore, cord blood is the specimen of choice as it is readily available at birth, with adequate volume for supplemental tests when required. During this research, non-linear algorithms known as multilayer perceptrons MLPs; in our case consisting of 3 layers: an input layer, a hidden layer, and an output layer have been employed to interpret the databases

Only the combined treatment with thyroxine and triiodothyronine ensures euthyroidism in all tissues of the thyroidectomized rat. Bipolar Disorders. Hamed SA.

Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. A Guide to Treatments that Workfourth edition. Hypothyroidism vor by quetiapine: a case report. Purchase access Subscribe to JN Learning for one year. Although this information does not directly address the issue of whether patients might feel better taking combination therapy, it does suggest that such therapy is not necessary to replicate normal serum T 3 levels. One study from India reported the 97 th percentile result of TSH as The modified model showed a slightly better performance, and therefore we chose the modified DNN model as our CAD model in the following experiments.

During the data collection process, our research included HT patients as well as non-HT patients. Densely connected convolutional networks. Hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar I disorder treated primarily with lithium. Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors.

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