Diet weight

Diet induced obesity model: Diet-induced obesity in animal models: points to consider and influence on metabolic markers

Michael Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira.

On the other side, although the pair-feeding method limits the amount of diet to which animals will have access to, there are cases in which pair-fed diets can achieve different weight gain outcomes, something that has been attributed to the differences in macronutrient composition [ 32 ]. Both the inbred and outbred strains have proven extremely valuable for obesity studies of female physiology and have elucidated critical sex-specific differences of obesity and its metabolic complications. During a similar time period, Levin published similar findings using a different strain and a different obesity-inducing diet. Nutrition Research Reviews. Thus, a reliable induction of impaired glucose tolerance is an essential feature of high caloric diets used in animal studies.

  • For instance, casein causes more weight gaining compared to soy.

  • Dysbiosis and the immune system.

  • Am J Physiol 4 Pt 2 :R—9.

Introduction

Hepatic steatosis happens because the excess of fat present in the body is stored in this organ causing intracytoplasmatic accumulation of triglycerides. So, in these cases, it diiet difficult to determine whether a metabolic outcome is only due to the high content of lipids or whether the high amount of food additives or low content of micronutrientes may influence it. Also, Rocha-Rodrigues et al. Search all BMC articles Search. As such, the model was developed in order to create a controlled environment for the study of how obesity develops, as well as its effects.

  • The technical assistance of Gisela Reifenberg is gratefully acknowledged.

  • This inflammatory status can be triggered by a high consumption of saturated fatty acids, which can be found in high concentrations in obesogenic diets [ 27 ]. The Journal of Nutrition.

  • It seeks to identify which are the main methodological strategies to induce obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the main parameters to be taken into account to achieve a successful model.

  • Diffential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study.

To better understand the aspects of metabolism promoting regain, we performed a large cross sectional study in male rats examining the weight reduced state at 0, 8, and 16 weeks of weight maintenance, before and after 8 weeks of relapse Accepted : 22 November Overall, diet induced obesity model diet and the timeframe of selection has evolved and varied between groups over the past 25 years. A study conducted in order to study the expression of the ob gene in rat adipose tissue through the control of their diets. Abstract Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between dietary fat intake and obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the development, nuances, and applications of an approach that models this polygenic susceptibility to the development of obesity in response to the common environmental pressure of a freely available energy dense diet.

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Continued exploration of diet-induced obesity led to a study of rats as a potential model subject. Obese rats experience greater fluctuations in energy balance across the cycle compared to diwt rats. The effect model rat strain, diet composition and feeding period on the development of a nutritional model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. Especially the alterations in Western-style diets due to changes in availability, quality, quantity and source of consumed food are leading causes for growing obesity 4. A new animal diet based on human Western diet in a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption. Group C was fed a standard diet, while group Ob was fed an unsaturated high-fat diet for 27 weeks.

  • Although our 8-week screening protocol generated a diet induced obesity model separation of the OP and OR phenotypes, it was far more labor intensive and costly than the 1-week protocol used in males, where the middle tertile of animals could be transferred out of the study early in life, rather than at 4—5 months of age.

  • Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

  • The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Dysregulation of hypothalamic serotonin turnover in diet-induced obese rats.

  • When fed ad libitum with a high-fat diet HFDobesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension establish in these mice.

Vanadate treatment normalizes exaggerated vascular smooth muscle responses in the obese Zucker rat. Diffential vascular omdel in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study. Lipids Health Dis. References 1. Maffei, M. Calorie overconsumption leads to an increase in body weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation [ 2101519 ]. Int J Obes Lond.

DIO mice can provide insights on the influence of high fat diet obesity model a model over time for factors such as food intake, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. This effect on the rate of regain was most profound in the first week of the relapse period Figure 5 B. Diabetes 54— Moreover, deficiency of iNOS led to an amelioration of diet-related insulin resistance 40 S2CID

MeSH terms

Mice aged 6 to 8 weeks can be considered young adult mice [ 15 ]. Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver from diet-induced obese rats: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem. International Journal of Obesity. Metab Brain Dis.

In this sense, the absence of changes in these parameters in some studies can be justified by diet induced obesity model short intervention period Table 2. Comparative effects of high oleic acid vs high mixed saturated fatty acid obesogenic diets upon PUFA metabolism in mice. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis. High-fat diets are commonly used to induce obesity in animals [ 8910 ] since they generate adverse metabolic effects, meaning that diet is one of the major contributors to the obesity epidemic [ 111 ]. According to Blancas-Velasquez et al. Animal models of obesity.

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This means that obesity has nearly tripled worldwide since and therefore can be termed a growing global epidemic 1. Reilly, M. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study. Resistance to diet-induced obesity: food intake, pancreatic sympathetic tone, and insulin. During a similar time period, Levin published similar findings using a different strain and a different obesity-inducing diet. Vascular reactivity in zucker obese rats: role of insulin resistance.

The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides. The mice who drank Goishi tea gained inducev weight and had less sugar in their blood than the mice who drank tap water and green tea. Download PDF. Dogs are used for research because they can be domesticated, and because they have been used in studies concerning diabetes in the past. The diet-offering method directly affects consumption and the ability to induce obesity.

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Continued exploration of diet-induced obesity led to a study of rats diet induced obesity model a potential model subject. First study midel to find correlation between obesity and palatable foods high in fats and lipids, but no conclusion could be reached. Multiple mental and physical illnesses, along with some of the medications that treat such illnesses can increase someone's risk of obesity. N Physiol Res.

Physiol Rep. For this, we reviewed the literature in the last 6 years, looking for original articles that aimed to induce obesity through the diet. Increased expression of FGF1-mediated signaling molecules in adipose tissue of obese mice. J Physiol Biochem.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Download as PDF Printable version. Mediators Inflamm. Conclusions: Although this rat diet-induced obesity model is characterized by changes typical of obesity, it also has limitations, which have to be considered when data, especially with regard to adipokines, are extrapolated to humans.

In this sense, the absence of changes in these parameters in some studies can be justified by the short intervention period Table 2. Aortic PVAT and connective tissues were either removed or left intact, respectively. The food consumption in gram was lower in NFD 3.

  • The correct control type depends on the question to be answered with the respective study Article Google Scholar.

  • The specific fatty foods used in the diets vary across studies, ranging from Crisco to lard to palm oil. Although leptin and adiponectin were also observed in gingival biopsies, no obvious differences between the groups were found.

  • The activity of coagulation factors was determined using deficient plasma shorter coagulation time means higher activity on a KC4 Delta Amelung Coagulometer. The technical assistance of Gisela Reifenberg is gratefully acknowledged.

  • J Sci Food Agric. Insulin resistance in particular is fed by the addition of more fat cells.

  • Among the animal obesity models, those that diet induced obesity model a phenotype more similar to human physiopathology are those induced by dietary challenge; in this context, better results are obtained through high-fat diets with high concentrations of saturated fatty acids, since these diets directly affects the metabolism, are palatable and have a high caloric density, which stimulates weight and body fat gain. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which is elevated in obese humans and rodents Maffei et al.

Additionally, body fat increase can cause muscular cell damage, since it enhances cell susceptibility to protein degradation and apoptosis [ 56 ]; therefore, DIO is able to cause the metabolic and morphological changes that characterize human obesity. However, it is frequent to be diet induced obesity model by the deposition of lipids ectopic fat in non-adipose tissues, such as the liver [ 5 ]. Given the diversity in human food and each human individually distinguished metabolic capacity, the results of testing the diet induce obesity in rodents are limited in term of translatability. First study tested to find correlation between obesity and palatable foods high in fats and lipids, but no conclusion could be reached. A study conducted in order to study the expression of the ob gene in rat adipose tissue through the control of their diets. Influence of gut microbiota on subclinal inflammation and insulin resistance. This information should be available in the articles, since quantity and quality of fatty acids can interfere in the success of obesity induction [ 810 ].

Different times of intervention, diets, types of fat and carbohydrates, animal strains, and sex, among others, are used in the studies, which makes it difficult to compare the results and to better evaluate and determine the best way to induce obesity in an animal model. Those animals are more susceptible to fat accumulation, gaining body weight and disruptions in glucose metabolism when fed an obesogenic diet [ 44 ]. Eur J Nutr. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. Diet-induced obesity in animal models: points to consider and influence on metabolic markers.

Retrieved Nov 14, The influence of obesity on calf blood flow and vascular reactivity in older adults. As the rats mature, growth rates slow, obesith gain in body weight and fat-free mass plateaus, and further weight gain comes slowly and primarily in the form of fat mass. In animal models, this has been shown to increase energy intake 3 — 6 and eventually leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance 7 — In addition, we observed that the decreased TEE and enhanced metabolic efficiency observed in our previous study remained unchanged when the length of time in weight maintenance increased.

Study testing the effects of obesity on the sympathetic nervous system of rats, namely blood pressure. Additional studies are needed to examine this possibility. One week of HF feeding results in OP rats having elevated leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose, along with increased lipoprotein lipase activity LPL in adipose tissue and galanin expression in the paraventricular nucleus 3049 In conclusions, CAF and HFD are both reliable mouse diets in inducing visceral obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which is elevated in obese humans and rodents Maffei et al. These metabolic adaptations that are thought to be contributing to the biological drive to regain weight did not resolve, even with long-term weight loss maintenance. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Stein, C. After the exclusion of articles that were duplicated, articles were considered eligible for reading titles and abstracts. Furthermore, relapsing rats had a tendency to burn carbohydrate rather than fat. Liver Physiol.

For instance, casein causes more weight gaining compared to soy. For this, they investigate the connection between the types of fat, meal timings and size, and weight gain as well as the reversibility of diet-induced obesity. CiteSeerX

Effects of obesity on insulin: insulin-like growth factor 1 hybrid receptor expression and Akt phosphorylation in conduit and resistance arteries. Additionally, obesity remains in both species for long periods of time after it has initially set in. Nat Rev Endocrinol. Matias et al. Int J Obes.

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Overview of Animal Models of Obesity. Various syndromes resulting in genetic polymorphisms lead to obesity. Conclusions: Although this rat diet-induced obesity model is invuced by changes typical of obesity, it also has limitations, which have to be considered when data, especially with regard to adipokines, are extrapolated to humans. So, the purpose of this review was to identify the key points for the induction of obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the necessary endpoints to be achieved when inducing fat gain. For this, they investigate the connection between the types of fat, meal timings and size, and weight gain as well as the reversibility of diet-induced obesity. Krishna et al.

Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver from diet-induced obese rats: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. Weight gain is the primary effect of diet-induced obesity, but there are a variety of additional physiological side effects. Food Research International. Keywords: animal models; diet-induced obesity; high-fat diet; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; obesity. Obes Rev.

Introduction

Retrieved November 13, This strategy can be considered a limitation of the study, since other rodent models may also be prone to diet-induced obesity; however, they are not widely used. Insulin resistance in particular is fed by the addition of more fat cells.

Int J Obes Suppl. Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem. Overview of Animal Models of Obesity. Social class may affect individual access to proper nutritional education and may hinder an individual's ability to make healthy lifestyle choices. C

Overweight effects the reduction in feed efficiency and the elevation in non-protein RQ declined after week 2, suggesting that this efficient weight gain and shift in fuel use was most profound early in relapse when much of the lost weight returns For example, mice were put on a high-fat diet, but given either tap water, green tea, or Goishi tea to drink. This way, the differences between the consumed food of the control and obesity groups are limited to the energy content which also enhances reproducibility Glucose tolerance profile at 27 week of experimental protocol of obesity.

Dogs are used for research because obesitg can be domesticated, and because they have been used in studies concerning diabetes in the past. Furthermore, dietary components would provide a spectrum of results since both type of diets one with mixture of ingredients-"cafeteria diet" and one with predefined ingredients would alter different impact on the metabolism of the body. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice. N

These models are useful for studying a varied population and elucidating the role of genetics in response to high fat diets. The problem is that it is difficult to calculate the amount of calories that each animal consumes. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis. Hyperglycemia enhances coagulation and reduces neutrophil degranulation, whereas hyperinsulinemia inhibits fibrinolysis during human endotoxemia. Front Physiol

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The study also checked for the effects of diabetes on the gene expression. In addition, diets produced from food may inducedd food additives, which make it difficult to assess the real effect of nutrients on the development of obesity [ 8 ]. The search for articles was carried out manually on PubMed database by a single researcher in February This change seems to be especially related to saturated fatty acid-rich [ 27 ] obesogenic diets Table 2. Also, the obesogenic diet can induce fat ectopic accumulation in the pancreas, which stresses greatly beta cells, disrupting insulin production [ 2327 ].

Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by Diet induced obesity model diet was obfsity in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. Lymphatic function regulates contact hypersensitivity dermatitis in obesity. Effects of obesity on insulin: insulin-like growth factor 1 hybrid receptor expression and Akt phosphorylation in conduit and resistance arteries. Article PubMed Google Scholar 8. Metabolic disorders. Views Read Edit View history.

  • Tataranni PA, Ravussin E.

  • The challenges of translating high-fat-fed rodents to human obesity and diabetes".

  • Body size and risk of breast cancer. J Physiol.

  • Download PDF.

  • Obesity is a global public health issue with high prevalence in all age groups [ 12 ]. The intervention time required for the development of obesity varies widely, ranging from 8 days to 27 weeks Table 2.

A low-grade inflammatory condition is often observed in obesitg animals [ 122728343556 ]. Retrieved Additionally, samples of low-income women and children were also shown to have higher rates of obesity because of stress. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Physiol Res. Furthermore, the spatial confinements in housing organisms can affect the brain chemistry in social creatures like mice and rats, making them more vulnerable to slower brain development and abnormalities due to the lack of social interactions.

Mice without lymphotoxin alphalymphotoxin betaor a lymphotoxin beta receptor had poorly composed microbiotawhich made them resistant to obesity. Int J Obes. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on adiposity and cellularity of diferente fat depots in Wistar rats.

ISSN Panel C shows the development of the bodyweight over time. Mohamed, F. Thus, both the increase in weight and body fat mass generate a cycle that feeds back on itself.

Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Pathophysiology of human visceral ddiet an update. Diet induced obesity model metabolism in adipose tissue and liver from diet-induced obese rats: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. Hyperglycemia: a prothrombotic factor? Since NFD contains high amounts of sugar and low fiber, a study using NFD as control for HFD compares a high-fat diet with a high-sugar diet and not with a normal diet 11 ,

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The drive to diet induced obesity model is mainly in the brain. The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity induce than the low fat diet rats. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. DIO mice can provide insights on the influence of high fat diet on a model over time for factors such as food intake, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Benoit, B. The PVAT of healthy animals attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction

Article Google Scholar. Young male mice have bigger weight gain than females; however, when they are middle-aged the opposite occurs, and female mice have bigger weight gain than males. It can also interfere with other cell signalling pathways as well as affects the content of certain isozymes in organs like liver, brain and kidneys. Social class may affect individual access to proper nutritional education and may hinder an individual's ability to make healthy lifestyle choices. Current Protocols in Pharmacology. Obesity rates are increasingly higher [ 12 ], which indicates that the strategies currently used are insufficient to control this disease, and that preclinical studies with this disease are still necessary [ 6 ]. The model is used to challenge beliefs about the causes of obesity in the population, as a group of scientists decided to test the notion that obesity is a result of overnutrition and could be controlled by limiting meal sizes.

Sampey, B. Med Princ Pract. Endothelial cells from pig aortas treated with high concentrations of glucose let inxuced an increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and correspondingly to an inhibition of diet induced obesity model Study of the effects of nesfatin-1 on gastric function in obese rats. Furthermore, the immune system can also be altered, with an improvement in this system when there is a modulation of the production of inflammatory cytokines [ 64 ]. The development of a more effective screening process for females discussed earlier will greatly facilitate this important work moving forward. Therefore, the composition of food and energy amount consumed by the animals fed with CAF can vary substantially.

Publication types

Diet induced-obesity Diet induced obesity model animal models can reproduce human overweight and obesity, and there are modrl protocols used to lead to excess fat deposition. Dysregulation of arcuate nucleus preproneuropeptide Y mRNA in diet-induced obese rats. In the present study, no difference in the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the PVAT-free aorta was observed between any of the groups Fig.

  • We have interpreted these observations from the perspective of metabolic flexibility, which we broadly define as the ability to change or adjust nutrient metabolism in response to a metabolic challenge. Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, euthanized by decapitation and thoracotomized.

  • When functional genomics is applied, few commonalities between the gene expression of DIO vs control rodents and obese vs non-obese humans are found. Food Funct.

  • This change seems to be especially related to saturated fatty acid-rich [ 27 ] obesogenic diets Table 2.

  • Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Some common mouse strains show large variations in their level of resistance to obesity.

  • A study of high-fat diet-induced obesity in young rats".

It has become clear, however, that the biological contribution to obesity in humans involves numerous model in a number of tissues that coordinately favor the accumulation and maintenance of an excess amount of adiposity. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Brown adipose tissue: A human perspective. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis. Metab Brain Dis.

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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. Diets rich in processed foods, with high levels of sodium, sugar and saturated fatty acids, are more palatable, which can lead to a higher weight gain in comparison with purified diets even when saturated fatty acids are added to them [ 52 ]. When there is no significant difference in body weight gain, other parameters can be considered [ 35657 ]. Physiological Reviews. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

  • Diet-induced obesity and pancreatic islet blood flow in the rat: a preferential increase in islet blood perfusion persists after withdrawal of the diet and normalization of body weight. The obesity epidemic results from an imbalance of food intake, basal metabolism and energy expenditure, with increased energy intake or decreased physical activity being the most important factors 3.

  • N Living a sedentary lifestyle is one of the leading factors in causing obesity.

  • Adapted from Ref.

  • Resistance to diet-induced obesity: food intake, pancreatic sympathetic tone, and insulin. The heterogeneity of this foundation imparts variability in how these systems function and respond to external challenges and stressors.

  • Mice were fasted overnight and fasting glucose was measured.

Physiol Rep. It was found that obesity had a stimulating effect, increasing blood pressure and increasing the risk of hypertension. Laboratory Animals. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value. Wistar and SD rats were assigned for 2 experimental groups for 17 weeks: standard St and high-fat HF diet groups. Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model.

Those animals are more susceptible to fat accumulation, gaining body weight and disruptions in indufed metabolism when fed an obesogenic diet [ 44 ]. Comparative effects of high oleic acid vs high mixed saturated fatty acid obesogenic diets upon PUFA ogesity in mice. Body weight and fat gain, as well as determinants related to inflammation, hormonal concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health, must be evaluated together to better determination of the development of obesity. World J Gastroenterol. In this way, some of the evaluated studies noticed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides [ 12916172122232535516163 ] and cholesterol [ 291623272935516163 ] in the groups fed with DIO. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Keita, H. GTT analysis showed significantly increased obesity model glucose values two hours after glucose injection in both DIO groups compared to both control groups Fig. The content therefore is consistent and highly controllable Despite the known link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. By adjusting for the variability attributed to variations in fat-free mass, we observed an enhancement in metabolic efficiency, meaning the suppression in resting metabolic rate was greater than what would be predicted based the decreased mass of metabolically active tissues that occurred with weight reduction.

The influence of the gut microbiome on diet induced obesity model, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal disease. D; Kirkman, E. The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Deficiency of iNOS-derived NO accelerates lipid accumulation-independent liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

Methods in Molecular Biology. To choose an animal model for a study of diet-induced obesity, it should be considered that rats and mice respond differently to this type of diet; in addition, strain, sex and age, affect the response to the obesogenic diet, with young animals and males being more sensitive to obesity-related comorbidities. Anti-contractile effects of perivascular adipose tissue in thoracic aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet: role of aerobic exercise training. The epidemic of obesity. Keywords: obesity resistance, weight regain, menopause, breast cancer, exercise, adipose, high-fat diet, sex differences.

Moreover, the sources of fat were diverse from butter, beef tallowand lardto vegetable and fish jnduced. Additionally, when young, speed in weight gain is also greater because elderly animals can adapt metabolically to the increase in adiposity; also, less inflammation is observed in these animals, which causes less glycemic and hepatic alterations [ 1 ]. Abstract Objectives: Obesity is associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be unraveled.

PLoS One e Concentration response curves were performed for leptin or acetylcholine in the presence or absence of Akt and NOS inhibitor. Yu, Y. J Biol Chem 49 — Shafat, A. Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver from diet-induced obese rats: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. This represents a significant gap in our knowledge, and identifying mechanisms of risk and targets for intervention is critical.

Lab Anim. HFSD caused a significant increase in serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin levels and a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Search all BMC articles Search. References 1.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

The aim of the induxed study was to compare the different diets in a head-to-head manner as well as to identify the ideal control diet for studies regarding vascular function as well as insulin resistance. Article PubMed Google Scholar When there is no significant difference in body weight gain, other parameters can be considered [ 35657 ].

In the insulin-resistant DIO modek, their peripheral tissues exhibit a blunted or impaired response to the excess energy, diet induced obesity model their tumors readily take up the excess energy. To better understand the aspects of metabolism promoting regain, we performed a large cross sectional study in male rats examining the weight reduced state at 0, 8, and 16 weeks of weight maintenance, before and after 8 weeks of relapse Hassanain M, Levin BE. Accepted : 02 March Overfeeding in this context had no effect on the glucose uptake in the tumors of DR rats. Mill, J.

This approach can be applied to test weight reduction strategies for their ability to overcome the metabolic pressures driving weight regain by modifying the environmental conditions in the treatment phase and examining the response during the relapse phase. Diets rich in processed foods, with high levels of sodium, sugar and saturated fatty acids, are more palatable, which can lead to a higher weight gain in comparison with purified diets even when saturated fatty acids are added to them [ 52 ]. Figure 3. Our assertion is that this paradigm reflects the human condition with respect to:. Table 2. Consequently, these results raise the question, what is the correct control diet in obesity studies.

Thus, it is likely that when the diet is offered according to the ad libitum or free access methods, food intake is stimulated [ 19 ]. Int J Obes. A study from showed that of the 35 papers examined only five papers compared diets using identical nutrients differing only in relative amounts of fat and carbohydrate 10 Nat Rev Endocrinol. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar.

According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria Table 1articles were selected for full reading, articles were excluded dlet 20 articles were not available for reading, due to restricted access to their abstracts Fig. L-NAME incubation abolished the relaxation in both groups at the same level. After the application of the criterion for determining obesity, seven animals from the control group and nine animals from the obese group were excluded. A rise in circulating estrogens is associated with a decrease in food intake and energy balance in the lean; however, this response is delayed in the obese.

In addition, our data suggest that it is critical to assess the sex-specific differences inudced the biological drive to regain weight, as well as the sex-specific differences in the efficacy of therapeutics and strategies targeting these biological adaptations for weight loss maintenance. Journal of Neuroinflammation Menopause is a very complex transition accompanied by a wide array of metabolic derangements in numerous tissues of the body. Over the past two decades, the impact of obesity on overall health and wellness has emerged as a major crisis. Received : 20 June

According to obssity results, both control groups can be considered comparable and reliable control diets for studies investigating impaired glucose tolerance. Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare different diets used to induce obesity in a head-to-head manner with a focus on insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. Mohamed, F. While we typically use Wistar rats, outbred Sprague-Dawley rats have also been used with success. Second, it allows for more precise measures of food intake, which is often an outcome in studies of this nature.

After the exclusion of articles that were duplicated, articles were considered eligible for mdel titles and abstracts. Weight gain is diet induced obesity model primary effect of diet-induced obesity, but there are a variety of additional physiological side effects. This article aims to evaluate diets-induced obesity models in mouse and rat published in the last 6 years. Furthermore, beta-oxidation is downregulated, which increases the hepatic lipid stocks [ 162325 ]. Thus, it is likely that when the diet is offered according to the ad libitum or free access methods, food intake is stimulated [ 19 ]. A new animal diet based on human Western diet in a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption.

BMC Med. Hypertension 48, 65— Figure 1. Body composition and bone mineral density after ovarian hormone suppression with or without estradiol treatment. PMID You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Am J Physiol 2 Pt 2 :R—

In this scenario there is diet induced obesity model production of short-chain fatty acids SCFA, like acetate, propionate and butyrate which leads to less protection mofel the intestinal epithelium, since SCFA are related to occludin and zonulin, and also leads to a drop in the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 resulting in decreased satiety and increased insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid accumulation [ 24384041 ]. Int J Obes Suppl. Obesity Silver Spring 19— One of the many comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity is an increased risk for, and mortality from, many cancers including breast cancer 69 — Vecchione, C. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.

J Investig Dermatol. At the end of the experimental protocol, the heart, ventricles and atrium, and tibia were separated, dissected, weighed obesitj measured on a precision scale ADMars Scientific and Industrial Instrumentation Ltd. During this time, both groups experienced a dramatic increase in the rate of weight gain. Obesity developed by a high-fat diet may have changes in the cardiovascular, metabolic and hormonal profile, such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia.

  • Effect of fat intake on energy balance.

  • Furthermore, obesity associated intestinal dysbiosis is characterized by a low microbial diversity and an imbalance between the different microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota, with a large number of pathogenic bacteria [ 83639 ].

  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide reduces vagal satiety signalling in obese mice.

  • Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects.

  • The molecular mechanisms of obesity paradox. The body mass in the HFD and CAF groups became significantly higher than the controls after three and four weeks of feeding, respectively.

  • Charukeshi; Pippin, John J.

Our assertion is that this paradigm reflects the human condition with respect to:. Behavioral responses to orexin, orexin receptor gene expression, and spontaneous physical activity contribute to individual sensitivity to obesity. Adapted from Ref. Table 1.

Diet induced obesity model of energy ,odel by estradiol in premenopausal women. In the present study, the mice were put on diets only for 12 weeks. C, control; Ob, obese; BW, body weight. The Journal of Nutrition. This article aims to evaluate diets-induced obesity models in mouse and rat published in the last 6 years.

During this time, almost half of the lost weight had been regained Brain Res 2 — In our study, the lowest vasoconstrictor response observed in Ob animals occurred due to a higher basal production of NO, counterbalancing and reducing the constriction caused by the stimulation of adrenergic receptors. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence. World Health Organization.

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In this scenario there is lower production of short-chain fatty 50 pounds overweight effects SCFA, inducef acetate, propionate and butyrate which leads to less protection of the intestinal epithelium, since SCFA are related to occludin and zonulin, and also leads to a drop in the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 resulting in decreased satiety and increased insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid accumulation [ 24384041 ]. S2CID Genetic mutations to genes monitoring metabolism and appetite predispose people to obesity. Nature Rev Immunol.

Thus, the reduction in this mkdel is positive for the treatment of obesity, with the expression of lipogenic genes conditioned [ 21 ]. The American Journal of Physiology. MMD has been responsible for conception and design and for aquisition, analysis and interpretation of data. When there is no significant difference in body weight gain, other parameters can be considered [ 35657 ].

  • The components and nutritional values are displayed in Table 1. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism 7.

  • Some common mouse strains show large variations in their level of resistance to obesity. After reading the selected articles, one additional article was included in the study, totaling 35 articles Fig.

  • Zanotto, T. These studies support the notion that in males, exercise attenuates the drive to eat and increases expended energy above and beyond the additional energetic cost of the exercise bout, and that these effects persist throughout the entire relapse process.

  • First study tested to find correlation between obesity and palatable foods high in fats and lipids, but no conclusion could be reached.

  • On the other hand, offering a diet with an excessive amount of fat leads to an obesiy in the diet induced obesity model index and visceral and body fat gain in comparison with sugar or control diets [ 3 ]. Diet induced-obesity DIO animal models can reproduce human overweight and obesity, and there are many protocols used to lead to excess fat deposition.

This accumulation in organs other than the adipose tissue, such as the liver, can also lead to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, since saturated fatty acids interfere in obexity activity of insulin receptor and glucose transporters [ 23 ]. The effect of rat strain, diet composition and feeding period on the development of a nutritional model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Journal of Endocrinology. Mice aged 6 to 8 weeks can be considered young adult mice [ 15 ]. Resistant maltodextrin or fructooligosaccharides promotes GLP-1 production in male rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet, and partially reduces energy intake and adiposity. J Investig Dermatol.

Kodel have successfully induced obesity in animals using a wide range of diets. Liver health, measured through hepatic triglycerides, can be impaired by the development of obesity. Studies on the relationship between infectious agents and weight gain show that certain species of gut flora can affect metabolic processes. High-fat diets are commonly used to induce obesity in animals [ 8910 ] since they generate adverse metabolic effects, meaning that diet is one of the major contributors to the obesity epidemic [ 111 ]. M; Harrison, L. A low-grade inflammatory condition is often observed in obese animals [ 122728343556 ].

Male animals are commonly used in the study of obesity; however, if the study aims to evaluate the brown adipose tissue, females should be obesity model, since this tissue is more easily observed in this sex [ 5051 ]. Flowchart for selecting articles. Another 14 articles were excluded because they did not include a control group and 18 articles were excluded because they did not provide enough information to conclude that the treatment led to obesity.

The influence of obesity on calf blood flow and vascular reactivity in older adults. Both increased intake and suppressed expenditure led to a large energy imbalance, or energy gap, which resolves mode as the diet induced returns Figure 7. So, reproducibility as well as publication external comparability is limited In addition, the Ob group exhibited higher levels of leptin when compared to C Table 3. In our first set of studies, we examined weight regain immediately after weight reduction and assessed how energy balance and fuel utilization were altered with prolonged weight reduction. Dietary fat intake and regulation of energy balance: implications for obesity. The object of the present study was to compare control and experimental diets used in obesity studies.

Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review. Article Google Scholar. For mmodel, they investigate the connection between the types of fat, meal timings and size, and weight gain as well as the reversibility of diet-induced obesity. Table 2 Characterization of the experimental design of the evaluated studies Full size table. Rodents are nocturnal and are mostly feeding at night, in their natural habitat. Mice aged 6 to 8 weeks can be considered young adult mice [ 15 ].

Hassanain M, Levin BE. A new animal diet based on human Western diet in a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption. Graupera, M. Ann N Y Acad Sci — PLoS One e

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