The motion of the particle is determined by the resultant differetial and moment acting on it. On the other hand, a discrete element approach will consider that the material is composed of distinct grains or particles that interact with bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight other. There are some new developments to the boundary element method so that it can be used for non-linear problem or problems with several major materials problems with random distribution of material properties are still not applicable. Due to the symmetry of the constitutive matrix D i j k lwe can further obtain. Without the provision of adequate boundary condition, the system is singular as rigid body motion will produce no stress in the system and such mode will be present in the SEE.

That is, you need a factor usxd such that dy d fusxdyg 1 usxdPsxdy 5 dx dx usxdy9 1 usxdPsxdy 5 usxdy9 1 yu9sxd usxdPsxdy 5 yu9sxd usxd Psxd 5 ln usxd 5 u9sxd usxd E Psxd dx 1 C1 usxd 5 CeePsxd dx. It can be viewed that such local results can be meaningless unless the results are monitored over a long time span or region.

In this case, the terms for the gravitational potential energies hydrostatic pressures in the Bernoulli equation must be taken into account. Since the water flows unhindered into the atmosphere, only the ambient air exerts a pressure on the water jet.

Visible to Everyone. The soft contact approach allows small overlap between the particles which can be easily observed.

Why does water boil faster at high altitudes? To solve the problem, the exact value of the ambient pressure is not required because the static pressures in the Bernoulli equation cancel each other out:.

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Even if the in situ stress field and the stress-strain relation can be defined, the post-failure collapse is difficult to be assessed using the conventional continuum-based numerical method, as sliding, rotation and collapse of the slope involve very large displacement or even separation without the requirement of continuity. For solving the integral equation, usually the Gaussian integration method is employed. For the ball-ball contact, the normal vector is directed along the line between the ball centres.

Multiplying the linear equation by this factor produces z9 1 4xz 5 4xe2x 2 2 1 4xze2x 5 4xe x d 2 2 fze2x g 5 4xe x dx 2 z9e2x 2 ze2x 5 2 E Linear equation Exact equation Write left side as total differential. Related documents. This case can be solved by the use of complex analysis or series method for which many analytical solutions are available in the literature. Under low normal stresses, the strength of the tangential bonds of most granular materials will be weak and the material may flow like a fluid under very small shear stresses. In a typical DEM simulation, if there is no yield by contact separation or frictional sliding, the particles will vibrate constantly and the equilibrium is difficult to be achieved. In general, the solution domain is discretized into series of subdomains with many degrees of freedom. Obviously, displacements of all the three nodes should satisfy Eqs.

Eauations this article exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation are given. The gauge indicates a pressure of 2 bar. Our equation now looks something like this:. The following variables are given:. The increase in flow velocity thus causes the static pressure to drop from 4. What static pressure is measured after the reducer? Solving this gives us.

## chapter and author info

For soil consolidation problem, the governing conditions are given by. Currently, there are several major numerical methods commonly used by the engineers: finite difference method, finite element method, boundary element method and distinct element. While the finite difference methods may be more suitable for different types of differential equations, this method is less convenient to deal with irregular boundary conditions as compared with the finite element method. An equation that can be used to model weight loss is C

After that, the readers are introduced tl two major numerical methods commonly used by the engineers for the solution of real engineering problems. Document For equations which can be expressed in separable form as shown below, the solution can be obtained easily as. It is, however, sometimes necessary to manually adjust the time step in some special cases when the input parameters are unreasonably high or low. This method is similar in many respect to the force-based explicit integration scheme as mentioned previously. The shear force acting on particle i during a contact with particle j is determined by.

Truly nonlinear in the sense that F is nonlinear in the derivative terms. Rate us 1. At time t 5 0, a solution containing 0. This case can be solved by the use of complex analysis or series method for which many analytical solutions are available in the literature.

So, as noted above this is a linear differential equation that we know how to solve. Password recovery. Differential equations in this form are called Bernoulli Equations.

Stress on particles is then determined from this overlapping through the particle interface. Comparing the terms, it gives. Interpolation or displacement model As can be seen from Figure 1 bthe nodal number of a typical three-node triangular element is coded in anticlockwise order i. In FEM, a nodal displacement is chosen as the basic unknowns, so interpolation at any arbitrary point is based on the three nodal displacements of each element, which is called a displacement mode. For quadrilateral or higher elements, mesh generation is not that simple, and it is preferable to rely on the use of commercial programs for such purposes. Law of motion is then applied to each particle to update the velocity, the direction of travel based on the resultant force, and the moment and contact acting on the particles.

The contact arises from contact occurring at a point. Being difverential engineer, the author seldom adopted the methods as outlined in this chapter in actual applications but do adopt for teachingexcept the numerical methods as outlined in this chapter. At certain moment, differrential positions and velocities of the particles can be obtained by translational and rotational movement equations and any special physical phenomenon can be traced back from every single particle interactions. Multiplying the original equation by 4y3 produces y9 1 xy 5 xe2x y23 2 4y3y9 1 4xy4 5 4xe2x 2 z9 1 4xz 5 4xe2x. This method is similar in many respect to the force-based explicit integration scheme as mentioned previously. This case can be solved by the use of complex analysis or series method for which many analytical solutions are available in the literature. While damping is one way to overcome the non-physical nature of the contact constitutive models in DEM simulations, it is quite difficult to select an appropriate and physically meaningful value for the damping.

Without such procedure, most of the non-linear differential equations cannot be solved. Substitute it to the ODE. Using the same interpolation functions, the element displacement model can be written as. If we can find the transformation from Figure 2 a to bthen it will become easier to carry numerical integration with complicated shapes for an arbitrary element.

Olse us: info tec-science. The increase in flow velocity thus causes the static pressure to drop from 4. Since all vectors are zero for a fluid at rest, a streamline can ultimately be drawn along any path. Note that the water level does not change noticeably when the water flows out of the nozzle.

Mesh generation can be a difficult process for differehtial general irregular domain. Next, a law of motion is applied to each particle to update its velocity, direction of travel based on the resultant force, moment and contact acting on particle. If the condition of the system after failure has initiated is required to be assessed, these two methods will not be applicable. Documents Last activity.

Sign in. The ambient air pressure is 1 bar. Due to the incompressibility of the fluid, the yo rate at the pressure gauge must be the same as the flow rate that comes out of the nozzle and fills the pool. In this case, the terms for the gravitational potential energies hydrostatic pressures in the Bernoulli equation must be taken into account. In fact, the Bernoulli equation is not only valid for a flowing fluid.

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Therefore, substituting Eqs. Although the individual particles are solid, these particles are only partially connected at the contact points which will change at different time step. More Print chapter. For an FEM process, we need to solve Eq. To begin with, a differential equation can be classified as an ordinary or partial differential equation which depends on whether only ordinary derivatives are involved or partial derivatives are involved.

Comment Name Email Website. Derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations. Thus the following variables are known:. Thus the following parameters are known:. To solve this problem we consider a streamline from the surface of the water to the depth h.

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We rearranged a little and gave the integrating factor for the linear differential equation solution. Here is a graph of the solution. P difgerential now our adjusted metabolic rate. Upon solving the linear differential equation we have. To answer this question we consider a streamline leading from the pressure gauge to the outlet of the nozzle. Since all vectors are zero for a fluid at rest, a streamline can ultimately be drawn along any path. Leave a comment.

Furthermore, the static pressure at the water surface los to the ambient pressure p ambbecause this pressure is applied to the water surface. Here is a graph of the solution. Contact us: info tec-science. The flow is incompressible and inviscid. Because then the fluid parcel could reach a higher height. You appear to be on a device with a "narrow" screen width i.

## PPLATO / Tutorials / Differential Equations

The tank is so large that the water level almost does not change while the water is coming out of the nozzle. We place the reference level for the gravitational potential energies at the considered depth. To get some more concrete results.

More Print chapter. The motion induced by resulting moment is rotational motion. Add this document to collection s. At certain moment, the positions and velocities of the particles can be obtained by translational and rotational movement equations and any special physical phenomenon can be traced back from every single particle interactions. In practice, both two and three integration points along each direction of integration are commonly used. Consider the given Laplace equation, using separation of variables for the analysis.

In the following, different exercises for the application of the Bernoulli equation will be shown. To solve this problem, we consider a streamline that leads from the water surface to the outlet of the nozzle. Viscosity of an ideal gas. For the calculation of the static pressure we still need the flow velocity after the constriction. This gives. Due to the nature of the mathematics on this site it is best views in landscape mode.

Measuring logic If the local results in DEM are analyzed, it is found that there will be large fluctuations with respect to both locations and time. M S Worksheet: Separable differential equations Work your. Therefore, substituting Eqs. For the ball-ball contact, the normal vector is directed along the line between the ball centres.

In finite element analysis of an elastic problem, solution is obtained from the weak form of the equivalent integration for the differential equations by WRM as an approximation.

Here is the graph of the solution.

Abstract Over the last hundred years, many techniques have been developed for the solution of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations. Substitute it to the ODE.

Quasi-linear 2nd PDE if nonlinearity in F only involves u and its first derivative but not its second-order derivatives. Add this document to collection s.

In this case all we need to worry about it is division by zero issues and using some form of computational aid such as Maple or Mathematica we will see that the denominator of our solution is never zero and so this solution will be valid for using whey protein shakes to lose weight real numbers. Derivation of the Euler equation of motion conservation of momentum. Home Mechanics Gases and liquids Chemistry Structure of matter Atomic models Chemical bonds Material science Structure of metals Ductility of metals Solidification of metals Alloys Steelmaking Iron-carbon phase diagram Heat treatment of steels Material testing Mechanical power transmission Basics Gear types Belt drive Planetary gear Involute gear Cycloidal gear Thermodynamics Temperature Kinetic theory of gases Heat Thermodynamic processes in closed systems Thermodynamic processes in open systems Optics Geometrical optics. Sign in. Due to the incompressibility of the fluid, the flow rate at the pressure gauge must be the same as the flow rate that comes out of the nozzle and fills the pool.

Begin by multiplying by y2n and s1 2 nd to obtain y2n y9 1 Psxd y12n 5 Qsxd s1 2 nd y2n y9 1 s1 2 ndPsxd y12n 5 s1 2 ndQsxd d 12n f y g 1 s1 2 ndPsxd y12n 5 s1 2 ndQsxd dx which is a linear equation in the variable y12n.

Get help.

As suggested by Itasca [ 20 ], an advantage of this approach is that it is similar to the hysteretic damping, as the energy loss per cycle is independent of the rate at which the cycle is executed. The damping constant is also non-dimensional and the damping is frequency independent.

The Bernoulli equation can also be applied to a fluid at rest.

This problem is also commonly solved by the method of separation of variables.

Note that we multiplied everything out and converted all the negative exponents to positive exponents to make the interval of validity clear here. Example 4 Solve the following IVP and find the differental of validity for the solution. To solve this problem, we consider a streamline that leads from the water surface to the outlet of the nozzle. So, all that we need to worry about then is division by zero in the second term and this will happen where. Due to the nature of the mathematics on this site it is best views in landscape mode.

A number of weoght in a DEM model are defined with respect to a specified measurement circle. There are many elegant tricks that have been developed for the solution of different forms of differential equations, but only very few techniques are actually used for the solution of real life problems. Furthermore, the aforementioned weak form of equivalent integration on the basis of the Galerkin method can also be evolved to a variation of a functional if the differential equations have some specific properties such as linearity and selfadjointness. The motion induced by resulting moment is rotational motion. The solution in the tank is kept well stirred and is withdrawn at the rate of r2 gallons per minute.

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More detailed information about this phenomenon can be found in the article Venturi effect. This will help with finding the interval of validity. The static pressure at the water surface is the ambient pressure p amb. Privacy Policy.

In the following, different exercises for the application of the Bernoulli equation will be shown. This exerciees be done in one of two ways. Differential equations in this form are called Bernoulli Equations. The gauge indicates a pressure of 2 bar. It is of the form:. Thus the following variables are known:.

Mesh generation can be a difficult process for a general irregular domain.

Now we need to determine the constant of integration.

For the time-dependent function T. On the other hand, a discrete element approach will consider that the material is composed of distinct grains or particles that interact with each other.

The soft contact approach allows small overlap between the particles which can be easily observed.

Example 1 Solve the following IVP and find the interval of validity for the solution. The best place to start is one of the formulas for calculating basal metabolic rate.

I r stands for moment of inertia. A typical discretization with three-node triangular element is shown schematically in Figure 1. Related documents. Multiplying the original equation by 4y3 produces y9 1 xy 5 xe2x y23 2 4y3y9 1 4xy4 5 4xe2x 2 z9 1 4xz 5 4xe2x.

More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. While damping is one way to overcome execises non-physical nature of the bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight constitutive models in DEM simulations, it is quite difficult to select an appropriate and physically meaningful value for the damping. Stress on particles is then determined from this overlapping through the particle interface. Thus, the general solution is y 5 s50 2 td5 E 2 1 dt 5 1C 5 s50 2 td 2s50 2 td4 50 2 t y5 1 Cs50 2 td5.

Thus the following parameters are known:. Solving this equation for the flow velocity, provides a value of about 4. The Bernoulli equation is based on the conservation of energy of flowing fluids. Now we have:. Jeor is considered by many [citation needed] to be the most accurate.

This problem is also commonly solved by the method of separation of variables. Find A for the following. Two types of bonds can be represented either individually or simultaneously; these bonds are referred to the contact and parallel bonds, respectively Itasca, Consider the following form of equation.

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Get help. Our equation now looks something like this: This exercisse us to solve for w t. In this article exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation are given. If you need a refresher on solving linear differential equations then go back to that section for a quick review. Note that the water level does not change noticeably when the water flows out of the nozzle.

Repeat Exercise 41, assuming that the solution entering the tank contains 0. Since eauations is usually the basic unknown quantity in FEM, only the principle of virtual displacement and minimum potential energy will be introduced bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight the following section. Figure To avoid this phenomenon which is physically incorrect, numerical or artificial damping is usually adopted in many DEM codes, and the two most common approaches to damping are the mass damping and non-viscous damping. Dynamical Systems - Analytical and Computational Techniques. How long will it take the person to lose 10 pounds? In Figure 2 awe define the Cartesian coordinate system, while in Figure 2 bwe define the local coordinate system or natural coordinate system within a specific domain i.

Forgot your password? One meter above the ground, a pressure gauge is exercisws to the hose to measure the static pressure. So, taking the derivative gives us. Doing this gives. Note that we multiplied everything out and converted all the negative exponents to positive exponents to make the interval of validity clear here.

It is of the form:. The ambient pressure thus imposes its static pressure on the water jet when flowing out of the nozzle:. Viscosity differentkal an ideal gas. To answer this question, we look at a streamline and at a point before the reducer and after the reducer. A hose is connected at one end to the tap. Furthermore, the static pressure at the water surface corresponds to the ambient pressure p ambbecause this pressure is applied to the water surface. Sign in.

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Now we have:. Due to the incompressibility of the bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight, the flow rate at the pressure gauge must be the same as the flow rate that comes out of the nozzle and fills the pool. To answer this question we consider a streamline leading from the pressure gauge to the outlet of the nozzle. The flow velocity v 1 at the measuring point can be determined via the volumetric flow rate with which the pool fills. At what speed does the water come out of the nozzle? Assignment Problems Downloads Problems not yet written.

It should be noted that both the strain bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight stress matrices are constant for each element, because in a three-node triangular element, the displacement mode is a first-order function, and differentiating this function will give a constant function. More Print chapter. In conclusion, the properties of the global stiffness matrix can be summarized as: symmetric, banded distribution, singularity and sparsity. Some of the more common forms are given by. While these tricks appear to be elegant, they are not readily adopted for normal engineering use due to various limitations.

This will result in a system of algebraic equations that can be solved implicitly or explicitly. The fo solution of non-homogeneous ordinary differential equation ODE or partial differential equation PDE equals to the sum of the fundamental solution of the corresponding homogenous equation i. This damping is usually applied equally to all the nodes. It should be noted that for a higher order triangular element e. In general, the number, type, size, and arrangement of the elements are critical towards good performance of the numerical analysis.

Example 1 Solve the following IVP and find the interval of validity for the solution. Benroulli hose with an internal cross section of 1. More detailed information about this phenomenon can be found in the article Venturi effect. This will help with finding the interval of validity. This can be explained by the fact that part of the energy associated with the static pressure had to be used to accelerate the water.

For the static pressure p 2 the following formula therefore results:. What pressure exists at depth h below the water surface? Sign in. We obtain this from the condition of mass conservation.

While quite a major portion of the techniques is only useful for academic purposes, there are some which are important in the solution of real equations exercises arising from science and engineering. The exerdises induced by resulting moment is rotational motion. To avoid this phenomenon which is physically incorrect, numerical or artificial exercisses is usually adopted in many DEM codes, and the two most common approaches to damping are the mass damping and non-viscous damping. It can be viewed that such local results can be meaningless unless the results are monitored over a long time span or region. If Q is the amount of concentrate in the solution at any time t, write the differential equation for the rate of change of Q with respect to t if r1 5 r2 5 r. Even if the in situ stress field and the stress-strain relation can be defined, the post-failure collapse is difficult to be assessed using the conventional continuum-based numerical method, as sliding, rotation and collapse of the slope involve very large displacement or even separation without the requirement of continuity. In conclusion, the properties of the global stiffness matrix can be summarized as: symmetric, banded distribution, singularity and sparsity.

Since the discretized system is usually overstiff, it is commonly observed that the use exercises lose two integration points along each direction of integration will slightly reduce the stiffness of the matrix and give better results as compared with the use of three integration points. By nature, this type of problem is much more complicated than the previous ordinary differential equations. Download advertisement. Since the shape functions adopted herein are expressed in natural coordinates, therefore, derivative and integration transformation relationships are essential when isoparametric element is used. For a three-node triangular element, linear polynomial is utilized, and the element displacement in both x -direction and y -direction are.

Due to the importance of the solution of differential equations, there are other important numerical methods that are used by different researchers but are not discussed here, which include the finite difference and boundary element methods computer codes for learning can also be obtained from the author. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals.

Now we have:.

Truly nonlinear in the sense that F is nonlinear in the derivative terms.

Why does water boil faster at high altitudes?

Putting all the displacements in a column vector, we can obtain the element nodal displacement column matrix as. Inverse of Eq.

Without the provision of adequate boundary condition, the system is singular as rigid body motion will produce no stress in the system and such mode will be present in the SEE. Flashcards Collections. This problem is also commonly solved by the method of separation of variables. Average stress is defined as the total stress in particle divided by the volume of measurement circle.

Built by scientists, for scientists. Furthermore, the aforementioned weak form of equivalent integration on the basis of the Galerkin method can also be evolved to a variation of a functional if the differential equations have some specific properties such as linearity and selfadjointness. The force-displacement law is first applied on each contact. The commonly used distinct element method is an explicit method based on the finite difference principles which is originated in the early s by a landmark work on the progressive movements of rock masses as 2D rigid block assemblages [ 6 ]. The motion induced by resultant force is called translational motion. If only triangular element is to be generated, this is a relatively simple work, and many commercial programs can perform well in this respect. There are also other less common numerical methods available for practical problems, and many researchers also try to combine two or even more fundamental numerical methods so as to achieve greater efficiency in the analysis.

Due to the importance of the solution of differential equations, there are other important numerical methods bernoulpi are used by different researchers but are not discussed here, which include the finite difference and boundary element methods computer codes for learning can also be obtained from the author. Learning Curve The management at a certain factory has found that the maximum number of units a worker can produce in a day is Following the conic curves, the general partial differential is also classified according to similar criterion as.

As this form of damping introduces body weigt, which may not be appropriate in flowing regions, it may influence the mode of failure. To begin with, a differential equation can be classified as an ordinary or partial differential equation which depends on whether only ordinary derivatives are involved or partial derivatives are involved.

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Find its velocity as a function of time t, assuming that the air resistance is proportional to the velocity of the object.

This can be done in one of two ways. Here is the graph of the solution.

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Due to the constriction of the cross-section to only half the size, the flow speed is doubled.

It would then be possible to fill a higher-lying pool with no energy input. You appear to be on a device with a "narrow" screen width i. Home Mechanics Gases and liquids Exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation. Password recovery. Let us consider a still, deep lake.

Home Mechanics Gases and liquids Exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation. It would then be possible to fill a higher-lying pool with no energy input. It is of the form:. Our equation now looks something like this:. Solving this gives us. The reference level for the heights used to calculate the hydrostatic pressures is set at the height of the nozzle.

In the loes, different exercises for the application of the Bernoulli equation will be shown. Example 3 Solve the following IVP and find the interval of validity for the solution. Since all vectors are zero for a fluid at rest, a streamline can ultimately be drawn along any path. This depth is therefore assigned the height zero and the water surface the height h.

The commonly used distinct element method is an explicit method based on the finite difference principles which is originated in the early s by a landmark work on the progressive movements of rock masses as 2D rigid block assemblages [ 6 ]. Being an engineer, the author seldom adopted the methods as outlined in this chapter in actual applications but do adopt for teachingexcept the numerical methods as outlined in this chapter. This classification was proposed by Du Bois-Reymond [ 41 ] in Substitute it to the ODE.

Assignment Problems Downloads Problems not yet written. To solve this problem we consider a streamline from the surface of the water to the depth bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight. The increase in the kinetic energy of the water is at the expense of the static pressure. This is easier to do than it might at first look to be. The ambient pressure also acts on the water jet that comes out of the nozzle. The Bernoulli equation can also be applied to a fluid at rest. A hose with an internal cross section of 1.

Viscosity of an ideal gas. The gravitational positional energy of a fluid parcel with the mass m is completely converted into kinetic energy:. If your device is not in landscape mode many of the equations will run off the side of your device should be able to scroll to see them and some of the menu items will be cut off due to the narrow screen width. We obtain this from the condition of mass conservation.

Given the assumptions in linear elasticity. The PFC runs according to a time-difference scheme in which calculation includes the differential application bernoulli differential equations exercises to lose weight the law of motion to each particle, a force-displacement law to each contact, and a contact updating a wall position. Quasi-linear 2nd PDE if nonlinearity in F only involves u and its first derivative but not its second-order derivatives. Discussion and conclusion There are also various publications on the numerical solutions of differential equations, and the readers are suggested to the works of Lee and Schiesser [ 24 ], Jovanoic and Suli [ 22 ], Veiga et al.

In general, this approach is sufficient for engineering analysis and design. There are also some public domain codes EasyMesh or Triangle written in C which are sufficient for normal purposes.

The gravitational positional energy of a fluid parcel with the mass m is completely converted into kinetic energy:. To solve this problem we consider a streamline from the surface of the water to the depth h.

Towards this, numerical integration methods such as the Gaussian integration or the Newton-Cotes integration can be utilized. The dimension of the problem will then be reduced by one.

The basic assumption adopted in these numerical methods is that the materials concerned are continuous throughout the physical processes. A gallon tank is half full of distilled water.

The force-displacement law is then applied to continue the circulation.

A typical discretization with three-node triangular element is shown schematically in Figure 1. For highly irregular domain where it is not easy to form a nice discretization, the finite element method will also be much easier and natural to deal with for such condition.

Password recovery. Doing gernoulli gives. The derivation of this equation was shown in detail in the article Derivation of the Bernoulli equation. The talk in general is about weight loss and getting healthy but part of it involves doing some predictive modeling of future weights based on calorie counting. P is now our adjusted metabolic rate.

On the other hand, the implicit DDA approach will generate a global stiffness matrix which is even larger than that in finite element analysis, as the rotation is involved bernuolli in the stiffness matrix. Derivation of element stiffness matrices ESM For a three-node triangular element, the element strain matrix B is constant, thus Eq. Solve this differential equation for A as a function of t. It should be noted that both the strain and stress matrices are constant for each element, because in a three-node triangular element, the displacement mode is a first-order function, and differentiating this function will give a constant function. Inverting z to get y. Specifically, in elasticity for instance, the principle of virtual work including both principle of virtual displacement and virtual stress is considered to be the weak form of the equivalent integration for the governing equilibrium equations.