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Literature review on body mass index: Literature Review: Tracking Body Mass Index Into Adulthood

Conclusions: Obesity is associated with poorer overall and breast cancer survival in pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer, regardless of when BMI is ascertained. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women.

PloS one. This could be a potential connection between obesity and reproductive dysfunction. All rights reserved. Participants came from five regions of Bpdy, were randomly selected, and data was collected in a lab. More research will need to be conducted to draw solid conclusions. Researchers performed a meta- analysis of ten articles with over 80, participants from countries all over the world, where they found that waist-to-height ratio was a significantly better predictor of risk for developing all three diseases.

  • Researchers credited this to waist-to-height ratio considering central adiposity, whereas BMI is unable to do this.

  • One cannot do serial sections of the body using CT to determine fat mass because of the excess radiation associated with this procedure. Commentary: understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity—a real global public health concern.

  • We have already elaborated on the effects of BMI, the hormones secreted by adipose tissue, and the links with neurology.

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Hyattsville, MD; Stat Bull. This is an important variable in assessing the metabolic ,iterature well as mortality literature review on body mass index of excessive fat accumulation. Finally, I would like the political activists and doomsday prophets whose professional careers appear to depend on frightening the public and inducing politicians to pass restrictive laws without proven value, to be introduced to the prescient comments made by A.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. JAMA 20; 3 : treadmill programs to lose weight BMI as a Determinant of Body Fat Mass A particular problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a person can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa. However, it has been coopted for this use because it is a readily obtained metric.

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Oniszczenko W, Stanislawiak E Association between sex and body mass index as bory by temperament in a nonclinical adult sample. This review has elaborated an association of BMI with waist circumference, waisthip ratio, and chronic diseases related to obesity such as diabeteshypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. ISRN Endocrinol This is also one of the many contributing factors to the learning disabilities in underweight children. More research will need to be conducted to draw solid conclusions. MarchVolume Number 3page 49 - 49 [Free].

Thyroid hormones control metabolism. Related Testing When individuals are identified as an abnormal weight, certain testing should deview done. They found that socioeconomic status and school enrollment were significantly related with BMI in both boys and girls. Int J Morphol J Intern Med Mechanism Body mass index is a calculation. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation.

Physiology, Body Mass Index

This review also briefly described the childhood BMI as a predictor of health and its limitations to use as a health assessment tool. These include disruptions in leptin and melanocortin-4 receptor gene, which are vital in energy homeostasis. This is associated with the immune-mediated hidradenitis suppurativa. Insulin secretion increases directly with an increase in BMI.

Fogel RW. Growth at Adolescence. Abstract Background: Positive association between obesity and survival after breast cancer was demonstrated in previous meta-analyses of published data, but only the results for the comparison of obese versus non-obese was summarised. Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Lean body mass in obesity. Randomised clinical trials are needed to test interventions for weight loss and maintenance on survival in women with breast cancer. Health, United States, In Brief.

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Intention to lose weight, weight changes, and y mortality in overweight individuals without co-morbidities. Conclusions: Obesity is associated with poorer overall and breast mwss survival in pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer, regardless of when BMI is ascertained. The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Preston SH. Body weight change, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. In contrast, images of obese people, males or females, are never exhibited in ancient Egyptian funerary wall paintings, stellae, or statues suggesting that fatness was not considered to be a desirable trait there. This has resulted in predictions of a public health disaster.

  • Based on this study, it is estimated that 96 million Americans from the U. When white adipose tissue mobilizes progenitor cells, they are then recruited by the tumor to support the growth of cancer.

  • Publication types Review Systematic Review.

  • However, one study did a six-year survey of 18, people from the United States to evaluate the relationship between BMI, HDL-C, cholesterol, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Membership is free and comes with many benefits.

Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study. This skewing is not surprising because a markedly reduced BMI, theoretically and literature review on body mass index, would be incompatible with life because of an excessive reduction in lean as well as fat mass as a result of under nutrition 28 or disease. Med Clin North Am. Eur Heart J. Inthe International Obesity Task Force expanded the number of BMI categories to include different degrees of obesity and changed the terminology modestly. Najjar MF, Rowland M. It now is generally accepted that a relationship between BMI and mortality risk should be applied only to large populations.

Abdominal obesity body mass index frequently been studied and is determined to be maes major factor in metabolic syndrome. BMI and hypercholesterolemia Fewer studies have been performed looking at the relationship between body mass index and hypercholesterolemia than with other metabolic syndrome factors. Thyroid hormones control metabolism. Mechanism Body mass index is a calculation. Introduction Body mass index BMI is a quotient that has been in use since the midth century. Body mass index is a calculation. BMI relies on the accuracy of the scale that an individual is weighed on, and can be comparatively referred to as an objective evaluation.

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Adult lean body mass declines with age: some longitudinal observations. Addict Behav. Anthropometric reference data and prevalence of overweight, United States, Norgan NG. Keywords: Obesity; body mass index; colorectal surgery; complications; laparoscopy.

BMI has no way to account for this variable. ISRN Endocrinol This study strengthens the relationship made in the previous revieq that there is an association between BMI and hypertension. Tissue cells then down-regulate their insulin receptors which lead to insulin resistance. The comparisons were further broken down into education, family history, hypertension, waist girth, BMI, Smoking, number of meals per day, family size, and age.

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The researchers also found that though the prevalence for risk literature review on body mass index generally increased as BMI increased, there was a difference litefature the ratios based on age, race, and gender. A study by Chan et al. Body mass index has been a useful tool due to its universal acceptance as a categorizing factor of body fatness. The researchers also noted that BMI and waist circumference were more related to one another than with the presence of body fat. Childhood BMI is a potential predictor of health later in life.

In this study, literatude the crude and adjusted relative risk of death among men was actually the lowest in those with a BMI of Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; It also may be a space-filling fat site due to the relatively larger pelvis in postpubertal females. Acta Anat Basel. Seven-year changes in body fat and visceral adipose tissue in women.

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A study by Chan et al. Post your comment. Sikaris KA, The clinical biochemistry of obesity.

Smoking and educational levels act as variable predictors. Using linear regression, a BMI of Support Center Support Center. Leisure time physical activity appears to have a protective effect on becoming overweight. The relatively poor correlation between percent of body fat mass and BMI also clearly has been shown more recently in the NHANES III database in which bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate the fat component of body composition.

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InQuetelet noted the body mass relationship to height in normal young adults was least affected by height when the ratio of weight to literature review on body mass index squared was used rather than merely using the ratio of the weight to height or weight to height raised to the third power. It also may be a space-filling fat site due to the relatively larger pelvis in postpubertal females. Obesity and efforts to lose weight. It is of some interest that accumulation of fat in the lower body at puberty in females is unique to humans, is not present in any of the great apes, and most likely is estrogen mediated. Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality.

Finally, men tend to be less affected literature review on body mass index low HDL cholesterol than women, though both see an increase as they age, regardless of race. Hepatic disease has also been shown to be linked with obesity. More recently researchers have considered whether these results are similar across various races. We have already elaborated on the effects of BMI, the hormones secreted by adipose tissue, and the links with neurology. These include disruptions in leptin and melanocortin-4 receptor gene, which are vital in energy homeostasis.

Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for literature review on body mass index 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Also in this study, the overall greatest mortality risk was in those individuals with the lowest BMI and not those with the highest BMI. Najjar MF, Rowland M. It was first recognized in France by Dr Jon Vague 62 in the s. Conclusions: Obesity is associated with poorer overall and breast cancer survival in pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer, regardless of when BMI is ascertained.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

According to Lee et al. This review has elaborated an association of BMI with waist circumference, waisthip ratio, and chronic diseases related to obesity such as diabeteshypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Increasing BMI has been directly related to decreasing reproductive function. These include disruptions in leptin and melanocortin-4 receptor gene, which are vital in energy homeostasis.

  • Fewer studies have bpdy performed looking at the relationship between body mass index and hypercholesterolemia than with other metabolic syndrome factors. The study evaluated the level of mesenchymal stromal progenitor cells and circulating progenitor cells in healthy participants with a BMI less than 30 and in healthy participants with a BMI greater than

  • In any event, it results in a lower center of gravity among women compared with men. Indeed, it may be misleading in this regard, particularly in men.

  • One potential reasoning for this could be the findings of Feng et al.

  • When individuals are identified as an abnormal weight, certain testing should be done. WC was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome.

  • The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Membership is free and comes with many benefits. This review also briefly described the childhood BMI as a predictor of health and its limitations to use as a health assessment tool. The mechanism of these effects is not known. As mentioned in the cellular discussion, a change in BMI effects nearly all organ systems. The New England journal of medicine. Additionally, one study looked at the correlation between nine different categories and BMI in childhood and adolescence of over 2.

The influence of obesity on longevity. National Institutes of Health. Acta Anat Basel. In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built. That is, there was not only an increase in food availability and variety, but also an increase in food quality. Ann N Y Acad Sci.

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This lead to further evaluation with large population genetic screening tools, to isolate genes that are invex with BMI and with obesity specifically. Researchers have been looking into a link between BMI and chronic diseases as well as its association with waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. Supportive parents and physical activity promotion are critical management components.

BMI is a gross measurement of body fat. The same goes onn regions where there is not enough food to support the population. Their measurements were taken for BMI and waist-hip circumference ratio. Much of the initial research was performed over a decade ago, however, there is some still being performed today.

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Workplace Health Saf This study also found that physical activity reduced the risk of hypertension significantly, even at a higher BMI. Pileggi et al. Obes Res 8: When people are identified with abnormal proportions, they can then be further classified based on their BMI. This lead to further evaluation with large population genetic screening tools, to isolate genes that are associated with BMI and with obesity specifically.

Secular trends in cardiovascular masss risk factors according to body mass index in US adults. The study of men born in In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built. For BMI before diagnosis, compared with normal weight women, the summary relative risks RRs of total mortality were 1.

These results, however, may indxe outside of high volume centres of expertise. Prevalence of overweight and weight gain in the United States. Body of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population. Thus, using the NIH-suggested criterion based on percent of body fat to define obesity, subjects with a BMI of 25, a group that would be considered to be essentially normal, were associated with a body fat mass that varied again between low normal to obese.

The comparisons were further broken down into education, family history, hypertension, waist girth, BMI, Literature review on body mass index, number of meals per day, family size, and age. The researchers also found that though the prevalence for risk factors generally increased as BMI increased, there was a difference in the ratios based on age, race, and gender. Northern clinics of Istanbul. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Oniszczenko W, Stanislawiak E Association between sex and body mass index as mediated by temperament in a nonclinical adult sample. This correlation was stronger in women compared to men. In this population, the occurrence of acute kidney injury is higher than in the general, healthy population.

You will see this in bodybuilders and other athletes. Hypokalemia and hypovolemia have been named as 2 of the most significant contributors to chronic kidney disease. Body mass index is a calculation. They examined Nigerian participants aged years for waist circumference, height, and weight.

Article Usage. These tests are considered standards of care in the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care annual update. This means that individuals of these races increase their likelihood of developing diabetes at a lower BMI than whites do [ 5 ]. Heymsfield et al. Am J Clin Nutr

For example, the prevalence of diabetes has been increasing but not the mazs death rate. JAMA 20; 3 : — Because of their convenience, bioelectric impedance methods or DEXA scans are the most commonly used to estimate the amount and, with DEXA scans, the location of body fat depots. Vol 2 Brussels, Belgium: C.

  • While BMI does show a correlation with type 2 diabetes risk, some researchers suggest using another method for predicting diabetes risk in the future. However, this study looked at Chinese individuals.

  • In an earlier report, life-insured men up to age 40 years were reported to be 0. Preston SH.

  • They found that BMI has a high specificity for detecting obesity but has a poor sensitivity meaning it often misses cases of obesity. The same goes for regions where there is not enough food to support the population.

  • More recently researchers have considered whether these results are similar across various races. Cardiovascular disease has a known association with increased BMI.

BMI and hypercholesterolemia Fewer studies have been performed looking at the relationship between body mass index literature review on body mass index literayure than with other metabolic syndrome factors. Obesity has also been shown to have a strong influence on reproductive cancers including neoplasms of the breast, prostate, endometrial lining, and ovarian. Insulin secretion increases directly with an increase in BMI. Buss J Limitations of body mass index to assess body fat.

Dalton et al. It has been shown to have a strong association with memory formation, and there is a higher incidence of leptin receptors within the hippocampus than other parts of the brain. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America. It is important to know your patient's BMI, if it is abnormal, and what to do next. The comparisons were further broken down into education, family history, hypertension, waist girth, BMI, Smoking, number of meals per day, family size, and age. The function of body mass index is to identify people of abnormal body mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc

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This causes people to feel short of breath, index shorter quicker breaths, and increases the incidence of atelectasis. As mentioned before, an increased BMI indx detrimental, but not in every aspect. Even with these weaknesses, BMI is an excellent tool that is easy to work with, and useful in most patient populations. Because of this, BMI would be a better tool if it compared similar populations based on age, sex, and race than cross-comparison.

This means that individuals of these races increase treadmill programs to lose weight likelihood of developing diabetes at a lower BMI than whites do [ 5 ]. For example, men typically have more fat-free mass than women, and individuals lose fat-free mass with age. Based on this study, it is estimated that 96 million Americans from the U. Can it have an effect at the cellular level?

Am J Cardiol. Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates. All of these data were periodically updated. Not only the societal but also the functional and indirectly the medical consequences of an excessive accumulation of fat also have been recognized for millennia.

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Sims EA. Int Literature review on body mass index Epidemiol. Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Muquardt; Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates.

However, this study looked at Chinese individuals. However, with this normalization, the equation distributes equal mass to each level of height. This was the only popular theory about changes in BMI feview twin, adoption, literature review on body mass index family studies were pursued. OSA can then lead to pulmonary hypertension, cause abnormal heart rhythms, and lead to excessive fatigue. If your patient seems to have a higher than average muscle content, it may be worth it to measure body fat percentage and not treat on the basis of BMI. BMI, although widely used, is not without its limitations. All of the listed items can lead to dehydration and pre-renal injury.

The influence of obesity on longevity. The relationship between body weight and mortality: a quantitative analysis of treadmill programs to lose weight information from existing studies. Thus, using the NIH-suggested criterion based on percent of body fat to define obesity, subjects with a BMI of 25, a group that would be considered to be essentially normal, were associated with a body fat mass that varied again between low normal to obese. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. Already a member?

For example, men typically have more fat-free mass than women, no individuals lose fat-free mass with age. They found that an increase in BMI by one standard deviation 5. Along with this, researchers have expanded their research to new areas involving BMI like looking at childhood BMI as a potential predictor of health later in life. The body would then ingest fewer calories that it is spending, and catabolic pathways would be activated. It was specifically mentioned that this measurement was not useful to study an individual.

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A larger than literature review on body mass index BMI causes litterature on the integumentary system as well. Buss J Limitations of body mass index to assess body fat. BMI and diabetes A study by Chan et al. On the other end of the spectrum, a lower than normal BMI causes dry, thickened dermis, with less exfoliation, and fine hair growth known as lanugo. Feedback: Send Us Your Comments.

  • When white adipose tissue mobilizes progenitor cells, they are then recruited by the tumor to support the growth of cancer. Body mass index has been a useful tool due to its universal acceptance as a categorizing factor of body fatness.

  • Ann Epidemiol.

  • This review has illustrated an association of BMI with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia.

  • Am J Cardiol.

A person with a higher level of fat-free mass could be reviee as overweight or obese. They found that waist circumference was the best predictor body men and women. Pileggi et al. The mechanism of these effects is not known. This study tracked subjects from 15 to 33 years of age, examining the effect of health-related behaviors leisure time physical activity, smoking, and physical fitnessparents' BMI, and adult education as predictors of adult overweight and obesity. Int J Obes Lond

Am J Public Health. Beginning in the 17th century, 61 the nass underlying theme in all the studies done on weight gain in populations is an increase in height as well as weight. Results: Eighty-two studies, including breast cancer survivors with 41 deaths 23 from breast cancer were identified. All of the above are significant issues.

Fewer studies have been performed looking at the relationship between body mass index and hypercholesterolemia than with other metabolic syndrome factors. According to Lee et al. The researchers also noted that BMI and waist circumference were more related to one another than with the presence of body fat. All of the listed items can lead to dehydration and pre-renal injury.

Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. Andres R. It is centered in the to BMI range.

The comparisons were further broken down litreature education, family history, hypertension, waist girth, BMI, Smoking, number of meals per day, family size, and age. Studies looking at the heredity of BMI showed a strong relationship. Additionally, Gierach et al. Although, for women the difference was not as pronounced. The New England journal of medicine.

  • According to Lee et al. Heymsfield et al.

  • Insulin resistance syndrome, body mass index and the risk of ischemic heart disease. Pisinger C, Jorgensen T.

  • This review indicates that specific factors can affect the health and obesity levels of boys and girls differently. Heymsfield et al.

  • The adolescents' BMI and their fathers' BMI were the strongest independent predictors of adult BMI, however, both parents' degree of being overweight and obese are predictive of the child's risk of becoming overweight.

  • It has been shown to have a strong association with memory formation, and there is a higher incidence of leptin receptors within the hippocampus than other parts of the brain. Similar studies have been done searching for a connection between body mass index levels and prevalence of hypertension.

Insulin secretion increases directly with an increase in BMI. In the respiratory system, an increase in BMI is most commonly associated with obesity hypoventilation system. PLoS One 8: e Additionally, Gierach et al.

Alternatively, if BMI continues to be used, the categories and definitions should be changed to reflect the current distribution of BMIs in the general population. Footnotes The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. In this study, both the crude and adjusted relative risk of death among men was actually the lowest in those with a BMI of This is not only due to societal concepts of an ideal degree of fatness, but also due to thinness being a goal promulgated by the fashion industry and reinforced by commercial advertising. He noted that accumulation of fat in the upper part of the body versus the lower part of the body was associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes, and also gallstones and gout. The indirect methods currently in use for estimating total percent of body fat include underwater weighing, an air displacement and density determination using a Bod Pod, a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and a determination of the isotopically labeled water mass. Body mass index BMI has become the standard for judging whether someone is overweight.

The review revealed 26 articles to describe the relationship between BMI and other metabolic syndrome factors such as diabetes, hypertensionliterature review on body mass index hypercholesterolemia, BMI relationship with waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, childhood BMI as a health predictor, and limitation of BMI as a health assessment tool. Since it does not measure adipose tissue, it has the potential for inaccuracy. A study by Chan et al. This does subtract from the utility of BMI in studies that differentiate body types.

Participants came from five regions of Body, were randomly selected, and data was collected in a lab. Since it does not measure adipose tissue, it has the potential for inaccuracy. The cross-sectional study included 13, U. This study tracked subjects from 15 to 33 years of age, examining the effect of health-related behaviors leisure time physical activity, smoking, and physical fitnessparents' BMI, and adult education as predictors of adult overweight and obesity. This study was done to see how effective BMI was at diagnosing obesity when used against body fat percentage markers created by the World Health Organization. Through the proinflammatory state, it has also been linked with psoriasis. Cellular BMI is a gross measurement of body fat.

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A pitched battle over life span. However, the s Flapper era introduced abbreviated and revealing dresses. Arch Intern Med. Idnex obese people do not have cardiovascular risk factors, and in those who do, BMI no longer correlates with cardiovascular events 97 — when the untoward effects of these other factors are factored out. Some mathematical properties of weight-for-height indices used as measures of adiposity.

Muquardt; Published online Apr 7. Thirty comparative studies containing 23 patients including 17 non-obese and obese showed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to intra-operative blood loss, overall postoperative morbidity, anastomotic leakage, reoperation rate, mortality and the number of retrieved lymph nodes in patients operated on for malignancy. This is because men tend to accumulate fat in the abdominal upper body area, whereas women tend to accumulate it in the peripelvic gluteal area and the thighs.

J Intern Med Lee EB, Obesity, leptin, and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, a person with higher amounts of fat mass but little fat-free mass could be identified as healthier than he truly is.

  • The participants were then given a 2-hour glucose test.

  • Gaesser GA. A study of 91, ambulant patients in 27 European countries.

  • Fatty deposition within the liver, known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, is one of the leading cause of liver failure in the United States. Waist to hip ratio did have a greater AUC, sensitivity, and specificity than BMI in women but no significance was reported so these changes were only minimal.

  • The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. For example, currently in Western societies, young women are often concerned about their body image, and most consider themselves to be too fat, even though they are well within population-based references. Maturational timing as a factor in female fatness and obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. However, these data were obtained in the s and s in an aggregate population with a mean BMI of

Thirty comparative studies containing 23 patients including 17 non-obese and obese showed no significant differences between the two loterature with respect to intra-operative blood loss, overall postoperative morbidity, anastomotic leakage, reoperation rate, mortality and the number of retrieved lymph nodes in patients operated on for malignancy. Nuttall FQ. It should not be applied to an individual in an unqualified fashion. Also, numerous comorbidities, lifestyle issues, gender, ethnicities, medically significant familial-determined mortality effectors, duration of time one spends in certain BMI categories, and the expected accumulation of fat with aging are likely to significantly affect interpretation of BMI data, particularly in regard to morbidity and mortality rates. Why the degree of fatness has varied in different cultures is not clear. In addition, the potential pool of mates is limited because of their perceived unattractiveness.

Conversely, Flegel et al. No caption available. This was done because the majority of mass remains within the trunk. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 12

Such confounders as well as the known clustering of obesity in families, the strong role of genetic factors in the development of obesity, the location in which indes fat accumulates, its role in the development of type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and so on, need to be considered before promulgation of public health policies that are designed to apply to the general population and are based on BMI data alone. Also, in the earlier study, the mortality rate was lowest in those with higher weight-to-height ratios. Vol 2 Brussels, Belgium: C. Randomised clinical trials are needed to test interventions for weight loss and maintenance on survival in women with breast cancer. Dulloo AG. Vital Health Stat

Pisinger C, Jorgensen T. Smoking cessation and weight gain. In women, there was a similar increase in weight and height. Adult lean body mass declines with age: some longitudinal observations.

More recently researchers have considered whether these results are similar across various races. Although, for women the difference was not as pronounced. Researchers are further investigation correlation this as a link between obesity and disease states like rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

This study encourages obesity prevention at a young age. See media image for a summary. In these cases, other anthropometric measurements may offer more clinical relevance. Workplace Health Saf The mechanism of these effects is not known. Nutrition today. The function of body mass index is to identify people of abnormal body mass.

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This review liteature briefly described the childhood BMI as a predictor of health and its limitations to use as a health assessment tool. The increase in abdominal pressure pushes against the cardiac sphincter in the stomach, and allows gastric contents to be regurgitated into the esophagus. Tumors require angiogenesis and vasculogenesis to progress. The cross-sectional study included 13, U. Post Your Jobs Here. BMI is considered to be an indication of the relative amount of body fat on an individual's frame. Overall, waist circumference showed a more significant prevalence ratio for disease than BMI.

Abdominal obesity has frequently been studied and is determined to be a major factor in metabolic syndrome. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America. No caption available. N Engl J Med Obes Res 8: Bellows et al.

The function of body mass index is to identify people of abnormal body mass. Researchers have also examined childhood BMI as a possible risk factor for endometrial cancer [ 20 ]. Adolphe Quetelet is responsible for the development of BMI. Thyroid hormones control metabolism.

The electrolyte abnormalities that accompany these same behaviors can lead to nephrolithiasis, and post renal injury. Since this is a relatively new area of investigation, there are still a lot of answers to be discovered. Further research is being done to identify more genes associated with abnormal BMI.

All of the above are significant issues. Abstract Background: Positive association between literature review on body mass index revie survival after breast cancer was demonstrated in previous meta-analyses of published data, but only the results for the comparison of obese versus non-obese was summarised. The NHANES data going back to and up to also indicate that the relative mortality risk is lowest in men with a BMI of 25 to 30 in all age groups, that is, from the age of 25 years up to the age of 70 years. The latter are currently being much better treated than in that era. Clearly, location of fat in this area would help to maintain mobility. Clinical end-points examined included operation time, conversion rate to open surgery, postoperative complications including anastomotic leakage, length of hospital stay, readmission rate, reoperation rate and mortality.

Int J Epidemiol. The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. Table 2 Categories of BMI. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Vague J. Indices of obesity derived from body weight and height.

Harper 33 years ago. Spousal resemblance in the Canadian population: implications for the obesity epidemic. In a teleological sense, why this occurs, if due to estrogen, is uncertain. Skerlj B.

This is troubling for athletes and others who exercise regularly [ 25 ]. Adipocytes produce the hormone leptin. One tool that has been shown to increase the validity of BMI, however, is the combination of it with waist circumference [ 26 ]. Overall, at the cellular level, an increase or decrease in BMI can have a significant effect on physiology. In the case of this system, the endocrine hormones usually have more commonly known effects on obesity than vice versa.

J Kass Med. Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort body mass index. Also, numerous comorbidities, lifestyle issues, gender, ethnicities, medically significant familial-determined mortality effectors, duration of time one spends in certain BMI categories, and the expected accumulation of fat with aging are likely to significantly affect interpretation of BMI data, particularly in regard to morbidity and mortality rates. Open in a separate window. The homeostatic body weight regulation.

Eur J Nutr Obesity has also been shown to literature review on body mass index a strong influence on revisw cancers including neoplasms of the breast, prostate, endometrial lining, and ovarian. Am J Hypertens It is for these reasons that a quotient developed in the mids is so widely utilized in the 21st century. However, with this normalization, the equation distributes equal mass to each level of height.

These may actually represent the pathogeneticially important metabolic consequences that result in insulin resistance and more directly correlate with development of reiew above adverse medical conditions. Literature review on body mass index in a separate window. Many obese people do not have cardiovascular risk factors, and in those who do, BMI no longer correlates with cardiovascular events 97 — when the untoward effects of these other factors are factored out. Using linear regression, a BMI of In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built.

Review questions: Take Free Questions on this Article. The pathophysiology of BMI was initially thought to be based lose the environment. These studies show associations between BMI and cancer growth at a cellular level, as well as association with other disease states. Related Testing When individuals are identified as an abnormal weight, certain testing should be done. Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of BMI was initially thought to be based on the environment. Br J Cancer Oniszczenko W, Stanislawiak E Association between sex and body mass index as mediated by temperament in a nonclinical adult sample.

Int J Morphol As mentioned above, BMI is extremely clinically relevant. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 9: Researchers found that total mean serum cholesterol increased with increased BMI. These patients should be counseled about a healthy diet and exercise.

Also, a significant increase in risk of mase was present only among those with a BMI of less than 21 or greater than The BMIs have been higher. Int J Obes. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Being overweight is also related to a higher risk of mortality. The BMI classification system currently is being widely used in population-based studies to assess the risk for mortality in the different categories of BMI.

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