Obesity

American college health association obesity in children – Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in the United States: A Public Health Concern

Another observational study noted racial differences in weight gain, with black adolescents who were using DMPA experiencing a higher increase in weight 4. Metformin can result in modest reductions in weight when used with a behavioral weight reduction program 33

Please accept the use of cookies or manage your cookie settings. Journal of School Health, 83 3 Email: moc. J Econ Perspect. US Food and Drug Administration.

  • Defining obesity requires a suitable measurement of body fat and an appropriate cutoff range. Skip to main content Press Enter.

  • Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.

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Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. All position statements from the National Association of School Nurses will automatically expire five years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time. Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity.

Subscribe here. It can be difficult to make hsalth food american college health association obesity in children and get enough physical activity in environments that do not support healthy habits. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. In other words, Americans can now eat more in less time. Psychological Consequences of Obesity Several studies related to childhood and adolescent obesity have focused primarily on physiological consequences. Different organizations have endorsed different diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adult women 29 30 Association of depression and health related quality of life with body composition in children and youth with obesity.

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Framework for 21st century school nursing practice. Overweight children are much more likely to become overweight adults unless they adopt and maintain healthier patterns of eating and exercise. Despite these positive trends, obesity remains an American epidemic affecting Introduction Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States, affecting the lives of millions of people. Defining obesity requires a suitable measurement of body fat and an appropriate cutoff range.

Public health interventions for addressing childhood overweight: analysis of the business case. Psychological Consequences of Obesity Several studies related to childhood and adolescent obesity have focused primarily on physiological consequences. Skip main navigation Press Enter. Am J Clin Nutr. Karnik S, Kanekar A.

Introduction

Abstract Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States. Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Activation of a lateral hypothalamic-ventral tegmental circuit gates motivation. Despite these positive trends, obesity remains an American epidemic affecting

The association between obesity and other conditions makes it a public health hewlth for children and adolescents. Since the combination of diet, exercise, and physiological and psychological factors are all important factors in the control and prevention of childhood obesity, primary prevention methods should be aimed at educating the child and family and encouraging appropriate diet and exercise from a young age through adulthood while secondary prevention should be targeted at lessening the effect of childhood obesity by preventing the child from continuing unhealthy habits and obesity into adulthood. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Support Center Support Center.

Adding daily physical activity, better sleep patterns, as well as dietary changes can help decrease the number of excess calories and help with obesity-related problems in the future. Risk factors american college health association obesity in children obesity americna childhood are still somewhat uncertain, and evidence-based research for preventative strategies is lacking. A school nurse-delivered intervention for overweight and obese adolescents. XQ: Contributed to the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. S [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]. A systematic review and meta-analyses of the impact of diet and exercise programs single or combined was done on their effects on metabolic risk reduction in the pediatric population.

Changes in Terminology for Childhood Overweight assocition Obesity. Severe obesity in children and adolescents: identification, associated health risks, and treatment approaches: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Without intervention, children and adolescents who are overweight or obese could be the first generation to live shorter, less healthy lives than their parents NASN, ; Segal et al. J Econ Perspect.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. J Mol Genet Med. S [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]. In order to tackle the climbing obesity rate, overall health and lifestyle needs to be a priority as they balance one with the other. The association between obesity and other conditions makes it a public health concern for children and adolescents. Other studies have been conducted regarding the association between psychiatric disorders and obesity; these have resulted in conflict due to obesity being found to be an insignificant factor for psychopathology.

School nurses can promote and implement the following overweight and obesity prevention school-based strategies NASN, :. Curr Protein Pept Sci. Whole school, childfen association obesity, whole child, a collaborative approach to learning and health. Healthy people Learn More. The implementation of healthy eating practices and adequate exercise regimes are essential in the prevention and control of childhood obesity. Children with obesity are more likely to become adults with obesity, thus increasing their risk for several diseases before they even reach their teen years.

Moreover, effective action to prevent the childhood obesity epidemic requires evidence-based on early life risk factors, and obestiy evidence, unfortunately, is still incomplete. Click here for more information. Parents are encouraged to focus on healthy eating behavior and exercising to be fit rather than talking about dieting or exercising for weight loss Become a presenter at ACHA !

  • The lateral hypothalamus LH plays a fundamental role in regulating feeding and reward-related behaviors; however, the contributions of neuronal subpopulations in the LH are yet to be identified thoroughly.

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  • Over 10 years, there will be an excess of 57 pounds of unnecessary weight. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.

  • Obese children need a thorough medical evaluation by a pediatrician or family physician to consider the possibility of a physical cause. CDC grand rounds: childhood obesity in the United States.

  • JAMA Pediatr.

In adult women, studies have demonstrated altered contraceptive steroid half-life 44 45although follicular development did not differ significantly in obese versus normal-weight women who were taking oral contraceptives 44 45 Through the collaborative efforts of health, academic, student affairs, and administrative colleagues, institutions of higher education can foster healthy environments and behaviors. Psychological Consequences of Obesity Several studies related to childhood and adolescent obesity have focused primarily on physiological consequences. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Severe obesity in children and adolescents: identification, associated health risks, and treatment approaches: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

Overweight children are much more likely to become overweight adults unless they adopt and maintain healthier patterns of eating and americsn. Some of them target the activity of endogenous peptides, such as ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, 17 peptide YY, and neuropeptide Y, 18 as well as their receptors. Department of Agriculture and U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Eur Respir J.

A healthy diet follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon. The pattern among boys was similar to the pattern in all children and adolescents except that Hispanic boys Etiology and Risk Factors Excess body fat is a major health concern in childhood and adolescent populations.

Perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Table 1. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies. American college health association obesity in children order to tackle the climbing obesity rate, overall health and heslth needs to be a priority as they balance one with the other. According to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report released inthere is an acceptance that there is no single cause of childhood obesity and that energy imbalance is just a part of the numerous factors. Although the steep increase in the prevalence of obesity in children 2—11 years has slowed, the prevalence of obesity in adolescents 12—19 years continues to increase. Rates of obesity among adolescents in the United States have increased at a dramatic rate along with the prevalence of weight-related diseases.

Support Center Support Center. Childhood obesity is a complex health issue. The obstetrician—gynecologist should caution against the use of weight loss supplements. Adolescents who are overweight or obese are at higher risk of low self-esteem, distorted body image, depression, anxiety, discrimination, and strained peer relationships. Related Topics.

Section Navigation. The U. In contrast, consuming healthy foods and being physically active can help children grow and maintain a healthy weight. Woo JG.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists children its publications iin however, its publications may not reflect the most recent evidence. Table 1 represents potential risk factors and confounders of childhood obesity. Featured Clinical Topics. To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address. The study recommended that proper educational materials, including useful and understandable literature, be used to control meal portion sizes and to help parents identify when children are at risk of obesity.

Child Obes. CO: Contributed to conception and design; agrees to be accountable for all aspects of work ensuring integrity and accuracy. Although certain medical disorders can cause obesity, less than 1 percent of all obesity is caused by physical problems. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Return to Table of Contents.

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References 1. Committee Opinion No. Skip breadcrumb navigation. Health Risks Adolescents affected by obesity are at an increased risk of developing comorbidities. Author Contributions: AS: Contributed to conception and design; drafted manuscript; gave final approval; agrees to be accountable for all aspects of work ensuring integrity and accuracy. Neuropeptide receptors as potential pharmacological targets for obesity.

This was the criteria used to identify the children with obesity, while the BMI between the 5th and 95th percentile identified the children who were not obese. JAMA Pediatr. Comorbidities and potential health consequences of childhood obesity. Such a plan would include reasonable weight loss goals, dietary and physical activity management, behavior modification, and family involvement.

The study recommended that proper educational materials, including useful and understandable literature, be used to control meal portion sizes and to help parents identify when children are at risk of obesity. References Alliance for a Healthier Generation. In the study, they identified that parental BMI and gestational weight gain among other factors should be considered in prevention programs. Lumeng and Saltiel reported that obesity in children affects multiple organ systems and predisposes them to diseases. Each participant completed a questionnaire on body images, eating behaviors, and moods.

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Naturally, the risk is higher for the children when both parents present with obesity. Figure 2. Obesity can affect all aspects of children and adolescents including but not limited to their psychological health and cardiovascular health and also their overall physical health. Cancer Research UK. Facts and figures on childhood obesity.

Return to Table of Contents. A school nurse-delivered intervention for overweight and obese adolescents. J Pediatr. Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States, affecting the lives of millions of people. Several studies related to childhood and adolescent obesity have focused primarily on physiological consequences.

Defining obesity requires a suitable measurement of body fat and an appropriate cutoff cildren. Physical activity facts. The reason most obese adolescents gain back their lost pounds is that they tend to go back to their old habits of eating and exercising. Hoelscher, D. Int J Pediatr Obes. The hypothalamic region is where the center of the regulation of hunger and satiety is located. Obesity and overweight.

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Definition Body mass index BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Adolescent obesity and maternal and paternal sensitivity and monitoring. Article Location Article Location.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Adolescents affected by obesity are at an increased risk of developing comorbidities. Goldfield et al conducted a study among adolescents with obesity, overweight, and normal weight in grades 7 to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Child Obes. For girls in particular, peer victimization occurs through social exclusion The dramatic increase in childhood obesity foreshadows the serious health consequences of their adult life.

In addition, eating healthy foods healht being physically active helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart disease. Int J Prev Med. Int J Obes Lond. Tetrahydrolipstatin is available over-the-counter and is indicated for adolescents 12 years and older with a BMI greater than or equal to two units above the 95th percentile. A similar cluster-randomized trial in England studied the effects of the reduction of carbonated beverages on the number of children with obesity in 29 classes children.

References

According to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report released inthere is an acceptance that there is no single associatiob of childhood obesity and that energy imbalance is just a part of the numerous factors. Public Health Rep. Obesity In Children And Teens. Potential Risk Factors of Childhood Obesity. Please accept the use of cookies or manage your cookie settings.

Reducing and preventing overweight and obesity at an early age is critical considering the probability that children and adolescents who are overweight or obese will remain so in adulthood NASN, Prevention of childhood obesity: a review of the current guidelines and supporting evidence. Goldfield et al conducted a study among adolescents with obesity, overweight, and normal weight in grades 7 to Thus, a combined implementation of both types of preventions can significantly help lower the current prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States. Department of Agriculture and U. Catalano et al argues that maternal BMI before conception, independent of maternal glucose status or birth weight, is a strong predictor of childhood obesity. Children with obesity are more likely to become adults with obesity, thus increasing their risk for several diseases before they even reach their teen years.

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While obesity the above-mentioned factors are informative, there is still the need for further research concerning childhood and adolescent obesity and obesity in general. However, diet control is only one component asscoiation the control and prevention of childhood obesity, while adequate exercise is another. Research has shown that children and adolescents who are obese have lower educational engagement, more behavioral problems, and more school absences NASN, ; Segal et al. Technology has thus made it increasingly possible for firms to mass prepare food and ship to consumers for ready consumption, thereby taking advantage of scale economies in food preparation. Am J Public Health.

Youth physical activity guidelines toolkit. In these children, the inflammatory markers are elevated as early as in the third year of life. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. Join Donate Marketplace Subscribe. Excess body fat is a major health concern in childhood and adolescent populations.

Introduction

Adolescents affected by obesity are at an increased risk of developing comorbidities. Adverse effects include fatty or oily stools, abdominal pain, fecal urgency, and diarrhea. Epidemiologic data suggest exercise may be cgildren in preventing gestational diabetes in pregnant women with a BMI greater than The progestin intrauterine device IUDimplant, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA decrease heavy bleeding and provide highly effective contraception; however, they are associated with irregular bleeding and will not improve the cutaneous manifestations of hyperandrogenism Obesity and asthma: pathophysiology and implications for diagnosis and management in primary care.

Department of Health and Human Services. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 10obesty There is mounting evidence that childhood obesity is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies. Overweight and obesity remain an American epidemic, affecting one in every six children.

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In the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Obese adolescents also are more susceptible to fractures because they have reduced bone mass when adjusted for body size Child Obes. The use of pharmacotherapy should also be considered in overweight children with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors.

Obesity in children. Preventing childhood obesity: tips for parents. Int J Prev Med. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention.

An additional economic rationalization for the increase in childhood obesity is technology. An obese adolescent must therefore learn to eat and enjoy healthy foods in moderate amounts and to exercise regularly to maintain a desired weight. If you need immediate assistance, please dial

  • The problem of childhood obesity in the United States has grown considerably in recent years.

  • CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website.

  • Facts sheets may not be reproduced, duplicated or posted on any other website without written consent from AACAP.

  • Adolescent girls Pharmacol Ther.

  • The availability of high-caloric, less-expensive food coupled with the extensive advertisement and easy accessibility of these foods has contributed immensely to the rising trend of obesity.

  • Ethical Approval and Informed Consent Ethics approval and informed consent were not required for this narrative review.

Prevention of childhood obesity: a review of the current guidelines and supporting evidence. With a greater understanding of these mechanisms, the field moves closer to understanding and eventually american college health association obesity in children the casualties of obesity. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. An additional economic rationalization for the increase in childhood obesity is technology. Obesity is found in individuals that are susceptible genetically and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, the mechanism of which could be explained in part by interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits, inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons. Chronic inflammation in children with obesity can induce meta-inflammation that is unique when compared with other inflammatory paradigms eg, infection, autoimmune diseases. This elegant biological system is subject to disruption by a toxic obesogenic environment, leading to syndromes such as leptin and insulin resistance, and ultimately further exposing individuals who are obese to further weight gain and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States, putting children american college health association obesity in children adolescents at risk for poor health. Stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased zssociation gain, which worsens obesity college creates additional barriers to healthy behavior change. Obstet Gynecol ;e— The progestin intrauterine device IUDimplant, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA decrease heavy bleeding and provide highly effective contraception; however, they are associated with irregular bleeding and will not improve the cutaneous manifestations of hyperandrogenism Because nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease should be evaluated for each of these conditions. Healthy Campus provides a framework for improving the overall health status on campuses nationwide. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG offers the following conclusions and recommendations: The obstetrician—gynecologist should be knowledgeable about the behavioral and environmental factors that influence obesity and should educate adolescents and their parents about an active lifestyle and healthy caloric intake.

  • J Neuroendocrinol.

  • Williams has conducted research, published numerous scientific articles, book chapters and bealth, and taught child health and preventive medicine. It is our recommendation that social groups affected by obesity and community teachers and doctors should be involved in identifying children at risk based on their BMI and participate in implementing practices such as good diet control through the reduction of sugary drinks, fatty foods, and also encouraging safe exercise programs to prevent and control childhood obesity in the society.

  • Cancer Research UK.

  • Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Obesity directly correlates with the severity of asthma, as well as poor response to corticosteroids.

Related Topics. Dietary supplements are widely marketed as weight loss agents, but evidence to support their safety and efficacy is lacking. New York State, Department of Health. Deadline: September 13,

See tips to help children maintain a healthy weight. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy aszociation obesity follow the link. Interventions include encouraging healthy eating and physical activity and behavioral counseling by health care providers trained in weight management. Ethical Approval and Informed Consent Ethics approval and informed consent were not required for this narrative review. Obesity is found in individuals that are susceptible genetically and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, the mechanism of which could be explained in part by interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits, inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons.

Section Navigation. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction. Places such as childcare centers, schools, or communities can affect diet and activity through the foods and drinks they offer and the opportunities for physical activity they provide. Measuring BMI is inexpensive and identifies adolescents at risk of weight-related diseases 1 2.

The pattern among boys was similar to the pattern in all children and amerivan except that Hispanic boys In adolescents, the american college health association obesity in children cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk for individuals with metabolic syndrome is not well defined. Obesity in adolescents. How being overweight causes cancer? Combined hormonal contraceptives can regulate menstrual cycles and normalize serum androgens, thereby improving acne; they also provide protection against unintended pregnancy and decrease the risk of developing endometrial cancer. ACHA members also receive special news alerts and updates from their coalitions, regional affiliates, and sections. Places such as childcare centers, schools, or communities can affect diet and activity through the foods and drinks they offer and the opportunities for physical activity they provide.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity also disproportionally affects low-income families in rural communities as well as certain racial and ethnic groups, including American college health association obesity in children, Latinos, and Native Americans Segal et al. As obesity begins from childhood and spans through adult life, it becomes increasingly more difficult to treat successfully. For example, the prevalence of obesity varies among ethnic groups, age, sex, education levels, and socioeconomic status. Decreased quality of life associated with obesity in school-aged children.

The ACHA-Patient Satisfaction Assessment Service gauges patient satisfaction and provides insight into the quality and performance of a college or university health service. Sibutramine associatoon voluntarily withdrawn from the market in because of cardiovascular concerns An observational study compared change in body fat and lean body mass in adolescents 12—8 years old who were using DMPA with those who were using a nonhormonal method Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

However, the distance, convenience, weather, scanty sidewalks, and anxiety about crimes against children could all contribute to this difference. Prevention and Control There are two primary components to the prevention and control of childhood obesity. Obesity In Children And Teens. Ogden, C. BoxWashington, DC Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep.

Adolescent girls Pharmacol Ther. Figure 2. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 10 Obesity and Lipotoxicity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Quality nutrition and physical activity are essential for optimal growth, development, and well-being. Benjamin RM. Role of the school nurse in providing school health services. With a greater understanding of these mechanisms, the field moves closer to understanding and eventually treating the casualties of obesity.

Parents who encourage their adolescent to diet or speak about their own dieting are more likely to have adolescents who engage in unhealthy weight-control behaviors or binge eating Greater-than-expected weight dissatisfaction, large weight fluctuations, and depressive symptoms in adolescents can be signs of a binge eating disorder Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. However, obesity also has a protective effect on preterm birth in adolescents. Figure 1. Although not directly studied, BMI should not have an effect on the effectiveness of the copper or hormonal IUD for either adults or adolescents as the contraceptive effect is local Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States,

  • The study recommended that proper educational materials, including useful and understandable literature, be used to control meal portion sizes and to help parents identify when children are at risk of obesity.

  • In the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents. Due to its public health significance, the increasing trend in childhood obesity needs to be closely monitored.

  • The study recommended that proper educational materials, including useful and understandable literature, be used to control meal portion sizes and to help parents identify when children are at risk of obesity.

  • Are school nurses an overlooked resource in reducing childhood obesity?

  • Table 1.

Subscribe here. Figure 2. J Econ Perspect. Behavioral modification strategies include self-monitoring, stimulus control, goal setting, and positive reinforcement. Indian J Endocrinol Metab.

Social inequities are evident in these communities and contribute to the overweight and obesity epidemic. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. Karnik S, Kanekar A. J Pediatr. From policy to practice: implementation of physical activity and food policies in schools. Chat with uspowered by LiveChat.

Prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline based on expert opinion. Preventing childhood obesity: tips for parents. Why have Americans become more obese? Where families live, work, play, and attend school, all have a major impact on the choices they are able to make Segal et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obesity Silver Spring. For example, one of the main limitations to the education american college health association obesity in children parents about childhood obesity is that typically written information is used as the conduit to health information and disease prevention. Social inequities are evident in these communities and contribute to the overweight and obesity epidemic. Role of the school nurse in providing school health services. Overweight and obesity are sensitive issues for students and families and must be addressed with compassion, understanding, and caring NASN, As obesity begins from childhood and spans through adult life, it becomes increasingly more difficult to treat successfully.

READ TOO: Obesity Rates In African American Women

Consequently, it is associated with several comorbidity conditions such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, sleep apnea, poor self-esteem, and even serious forms of depression. Pediatrics, 6e Treatment of pediatric and adolescent obesity. While health association obesity are many factors and areas to consider when discussing obesity in children and adolescents, there are a few trends that are evident in recent studies. Research studies have demonstrated that school programs are effective in preventing childhood obesity by encouraging healthier diets and increased physical activity Segal et al. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Quality nutrition and physical activity are essential for optimal growth, development, and well-being.

Educating parents on proper nutrition and dietary caloric intake requirements for their children is at the forefront for the prevention of obesity; however, the way the information is lbesity may affect the usefulness of the information. A combination of primary and secondary prevention is necessary to achieve the best results. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. Thus, instilling some responsibility on the parents and informing them that controlled food preparation, diet control, and family participation in physical activities will all assist in the treatment and control of obesity in their children. The first is to educate parents on proper nutritional requirements for their children and the second is to implement the learned information.

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