Obesity

Breastfeeding related to childhood obesity: Breastfeeding as Obesity Prevention

It is important however to acknowledge that the preponderance of the epidemiological evidence does not support generalizing the PROBIT findings as this trial has major external validity and statistical power limitations.

Influence of physical inactivity on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic predisposition to childhood obesity. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more. In addition, stratified analyses revealed differences in obesity definition and breastfeeding definition in the studies we examined. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. Mohammed H, Vuvor F.

  • NAM Perspectives.

  • Results Twenty-five studies with a total ofparticipants were included in this meta-analysis. Related Links.

  • Competing interests. Int J Obes Lond ; 28 —

  • Ann LaFontaine.

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I think it is difficult to say that breastfeeding might prevent obesity when there are so many other factors such as genetics and the food offered in our markets depending where you live in the world. The subgroup analyses showed that the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity was particularly strong in 4 studies that applied other definitions of obesity. There are 2 possible explanations for this result. Moreover, there was no difference between the pooled estimates across cohort studies and cross-sectional studies.

Comparison of two methods to detect publication bias in meta-analysis. Psychol Methods. Is the association of breastfeeding with child obesity breastfeeding related to childhood obesity by infant weight change? Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss While we know that breastfeeding has many health benefits for mothers and babies, the studies have been a bit fuzzy when it comes to the link between breastfeeding and preventing obesity in children.

READ TOO: Triathlon Nutrition Advice For Hypothyroidism

Sign in to coalition newsletter a comment Sign in to your personal account. Future research should distinguish the data between exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, and exclusive formula feeding, and use uniform potential confounders. Future Child. Latent protective effects of breastfeeding on late childhood overweight and obesity: a nationwide prospective study. Higher protein and fat intake in early childhood have been associated with adiposity [ 67 ].

The association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity has long been under debate; breastefeding, no agreement has been achieved with respect to this issue. Recent epidemiological evidence, including a major meta-analysis that adjusted for high heterogeneity across studies, strongly suggests that there is a significant, albeit small, overall effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity in the general population Victora et al. Thus, breast milk is rich in effective ingredient with higher nutritional value. Therefore, future studies should compare the results for exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, and exclusive formula feeding. I 2 statistic was used to evaluate the between-study heterogeneity. The Baby-Friendly Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff.

World Health Organization. Second, we did not consider unpublished investigations breastfeeding related to childhood obesity may lead to publication bias. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between breastfeeding and the risk of childhood obesity. In conclusion, the preponderance of the epidemiological evidence suggests that the effect size of the benefit that breastfeeding may offer against obesity risk in the general population is small, as expected.

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When looking at the studies with the highest possible quality, the review found a statistically significant effect size of 13 percent in obesity risk reduction. The findings from this systematic review are fully consistent with previous reviews conducted over the past 15 years Beyerlein and Von Kries, ; Dewey, ; Weng et al. The authors provide very reasonable biological explanations from their findings making their results even more meaningful. Misgendering: What it is and why it matters.

  • Ann LaFontaine. Whether consider amount of TV viewing and exercise of children as adjusted confounders.

  • The calculation of BMI for child and adolescent population was the same as that obexity adults; however, childhood obesity age under 20 years was defined by comparing with children of the same sex and age [ 2829 ]. In a study involving over 14, German children assessed for weight and height between 4.

  • Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. Figure 4.

  • Breastfeeding provides warmth and closeness between you and your baby. The comprehensive literature search of electronic databases, key journals, and cross-references yielded publications, which included unduplicated articles, regarding the association between obesity and breastfeeding published before 1 st August as potentially relevant articles.

  • Learning to eat only when you are hungry and stop when you are full is a really good skill childhood obesity it comes to preventing obesity. Recent epidemiological evidence, including a major meta-analysis that adjusted for high heterogeneity across studies, strongly suggests that there is a significant, albeit small, overall effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity in the general population Victora et al.

Categorical analysis of 17 studies revealed a dose-response effect between breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of childhood obesity. As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides breastfeeding related to childhood obesity to our library of archived content. Article PubMed Google Scholar 4. This systematic review covered evidence from low- middle- and high-income countries and did not impose restrictions in terms of the experimental or observational designs allowed. Studies were excluded on the basis of the following criteria: focused on other disease; were duplicates; provided incomplete data e.

The objective of this meta-analysis breastfeeding related to childhood obesity to investigate the association between breastfeeding and the chidhood of childhood obesity. The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial PROBIT has called into question the findings of observational studies that have documented an association between breastfeeding and reduced childhood obesity risk. Healthy brain, healthier heart? Psychol Methods. Babies who drink breast milk are more likely to have certain bacteria in their digestive tracts that help prevent obesity.

J Pediatr. By contrast, over childhood obesity of the boys with these genotypes who received only breast milk for less than 2 months were overweight. In particular, breastfeeding for more than 7 months significantly decreased the risk of obesity [ 64 ]. Any disagreement was resolved in discussion with the project lead. Many mothers also feel joy and fulfillment from the connection they experience with their child while nursing. Latent protective effects of breastfeeding on late childhood overweight and obesity: a nationwide prospective study.

MeSH terms

Babies who are fed breastfeedinv and stop breastfeeding early have higher risks of obesity, diabetes, respiratory and ear breastfeeding related to childhood obesity, and sudden infant death syndrome SIDSand tend to require more doctor visits, hospitalizations, and prescriptions. The findings from this systematic review are fully consistent with previous reviews conducted over the past 15 years Beyerlein and Von Kries, ; Dewey, ; Weng et al. First, the endocrinological profiles of breastfed versus formula-fed infants including insulin and leptin levels suggest that breastfeeding may protect babies against the excessive deposition of body fat Dewey, ; Geddes and Prescott, ; Koletzko et al. PROBIT, a large-scale randomized controlled study conducted in Belarus to test the effect of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative BFHI on breastfeeding outcomes, failed to document such an association despite showing a major positive effect on breastfeeding outcomes.

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Findings suggested that studies that classified children using the breastfeeding duration showed a more protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity than other studies.

  • The findings from this systematic review are fully consistent with previous reviews conducted over the past 15 years Beyerlein and Von Kries, ; Dewey, ; Weng et al. Among boys, how long they received only breast milk protected against the risk of obesity after 10 years of age among both carriers and noncarriers of an FTO obesity risk allele.

  • Thankfully, we have a number of evidence-based strategies that work at both the facility and the community level, and some that work on the macroenvironment, protecting the ability of mothers who wish to breastfeed their babies to do so.

  • Include lactation consultants and other breastfeeding experts on patient care teams.

  • Compared to the previous reviews [ 23 — 25 ], this analysis is different in both eligibility criteria and study methodologies.

  • Specifically, a genetic variant in the fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 gene has been found to moderate the effect of breastfeeding on improved intellectual development in children Caspi et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.

In conclusion, the preponderance of the epidemiological evidence suggests that the effect size of the benefit that breastfeeding may offer against obesity risk in the breastfeeding related to childhood obesity population is small, as expected. An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Since overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, arthritis, and certain types of cancers, the number of obesity-related death is estimated at 2. Rafael Perez-Escamilla. Babies who feed directly from the breast are less likely to be overfed.

Future Child. Close Health Obesity action coalition newsletter from Harvard Medical School Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss Great way to prevent obesity in new moms too. J Pediatr. Among boys who had an AA or AT genotype mutations of the FTO gene that have been associated with obesitynone of them were overweight if they received only breast milk for 5 months.

Publication types

Obesity is one of the most serious health problems facing both children and fhildhood today. But the babies that had the lowest risk of obesity in the study were those that got only breast milk directly from the breast for the first three months of life. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents.

CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. Learning to eat only when you are hungry and stop when you are full is a really good xhildhood when it comes to preventing obesity. It is well accepted that studies showing significant results are more likely to be published, and more likely to be published in English, which is a common cause of publication bias. The pooled OR was 0. Since overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, arthritis, and certain types of cancers, the number of obesity-related death is estimated at 2. Twenty-five studies with a total ofparticipants were included in this meta-analysis.

Lastly, Harder et al. Nicotine addiction explained — and how medications breastfeedung help. The results indicate a protective effect of breastfeeding for childhood obesity, and prolonged breastfeeding is directly related to a decreasing risk of obesity. Second, PROBIT is severely underpowered to examine the association of interest-based on the relatively small effect size that would need to be detected.

  • But the babies that had the lowest risk of obesity in the study were those that got only breast milk directly from the breast for the first three months of life. Thus, this review provides important updated data to reflect the changing of breastfeeding throughout the world.

  • Arenz et al. Thankfully, we have a number of evidence-based strategies that work at both the facility and the community level, and some that work on the macroenvironment, protecting the ability of mothers who wish to breastfeed their babies to do so.

  • In summary, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity.

  • To strengthen breastfeeding practices, families, employers, professional workers and society as a whole should fully support to breastfeeding mothers.

  • Google Scholar

Childhood obesity Twenty-five studies with a total ofparticipants were included in this meta-analysis. Deciding to breastfeed your baby benefits tto you and your baby. As there were no standard BMI cutoffs to label obesity or overweight in children, the definitions of obesity were not uniform across eligible studies. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more.

Open J Prev Med. The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial PROBIT has called into question the findings of observational studies that have documented an association between breastfeeding and reduced childhood obesity risk. J Paediatr Child Health. Deciding to breastfeed your baby benefits both you and your baby. Learn More.

Background

The International Obesity Taskforce. If I can do it anyone can. It shows us that we need to: Do everything we can to help mothers stay at home with their babies for at least three months, which will require paid maternity leaves. Read on. The pooled OR was 0.

  • Consistent with the Greek findings, Abarin et al. In the present analysis, we compared the pooled ORs before and after combined adjustment for confounders, and observed a decreasing trend after the adjustment for potential confounders.

  • Subsequent studies Dedoussis et al.

  • Categorical analysis of 17 studies revealed a dose-response effect between breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of childhood obesity. Main meta-analysis results The pooled AOR derived from all 25 studies was 0.

Coordinate lactation care between the hospital and outpatient clinic. This meta-analysis suggests that breastfeeding protects against obesity in childhood. Given breastfdeding diverse criteria for obesity, we considered whether they might affect the breastfeeding related to childhood obesity of our estimate, and conducted sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence. Ann LaFontaine. Methods Literature search The search strategy was comprised of the following steps: 1 formulation of the main topic, and inclusion and exclusion criteria; and 2 literature search, including both electronic databases, hand-search of key journals e. In the second meta-analysis, Giugliani et al. If the null hypothesis was not rejected, a fixed effects model was used to calculate pooled effect estimates [ 33 ].

  • If the same study sample was used in 2 or more studies, findings of the largest sample size or the longest follow-up periods were included. There are 2 possible explanations for this result.

  • Understand obesity risk as part of a bigger societal issue — truly, as a social justice issue.

  • Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for nreastfeeding alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts. Birth weight, having elder sibling smaternal educational level, age and total house-hold income at 0.

  • Therefore, if we adjust for the same and more relevant confounders, the protective effect of early breastfeeding might reduce largely.

This chilrhood shows that breastfeeding is a protective factor of adiposity, in contrast to results from several studies, which have shown no link between breastfeeding and obesity [ 212249 ]. Don't miss your FREE gift. Gender, physical education classes, siblings, maternal nutritional state during pregnancy bc. Close Thanks for visiting. Postpartum anxiety is invisible, but common and treatable. Second, we did not consider unpublished investigations that may lead to publication bias. It is important however to acknowledge that the preponderance of the epidemiological evidence does not support generalizing the PROBIT findings as this trial has major external validity and statistical power limitations.

Ho : 08 December Additional information Competing interests The authors breastfeeding related to childhood obesity that they have no competing interest. Flowchart of literature search and selection process a. Thanks for visiting. Hospitals can either help or hinder mothers and babies as they begin to breastfeed. Understand obesity risk as part of a bigger societal issue — truly, as a social justice issue. Why would that be?

Background

Arch Dis Child. For example, Toschke et al. Overweight and obesity in 6- and year-old Czech children in protective effect of breast-feeding.

  • Owen et al. Harvard Health Blog The real link between breastfeeding and preventing obesity.

  • In Scandinavia most parent regardless of income levels are home for three months or more and most who are physically able to opt for breastfeeding. Figure 2.

  • Data extraction A standardized form childhood used to extract data independently by 2 authors. I think it is difficult to say that breastfeeding might prevent obesity when there are so many other factors such as genetics and the food offered in our markets depending where you live in the world.

  • Indeed, recent findings indicate that the benefit of breastfeeding against the risk against childhood obesity may be more pronounced among children who have a genetic propensity to become obese Abarin et al. Healthy brain, healthier heart?

  • Full size image. PubMed Google Scholar.

Future research should distinguish the data obesit obesity breastfeeding, mixed feeding, and exclusive formula feeding, and use uniform potential confounders. Does breastfeeding protect against childhood overweight? Several studies have indicated that breastfed children have a lower risk of childhood obesity than those who were not breastfed, while other studies have provided conflicting evidence. Don't miss your FREE gift.

Daniels SR. Get free access to newly published articles. The pooled AOR derived relatsd all 25 studies was 0. Stolzer JM. Close Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss Sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate differences in study design, definitions of obesity and breastfeeding, type of breastfeeding, and adjustment for potential confounding factors Table 2. Hormones released during breastfeeding help to return the uterus to its normal size and can prevent postpartum bleeding.

The higher breastfeeding related to childhood obesity content of artificial baby milk compared to the lower protein content in breastmilk is responsible for the increased growth rate and adiposity during the influential period of infancy of formula-fed infants. The authors provide very breaastfeeding biological explanations from their findings making their results even more meaningful. The length of breastfeeding period was associated with a decreased risk of childhood obesity. Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. To be able to breastfeed directly from the breast for three months, you have to be able to be with your baby constantly for three months. Ask about breastfeeding support practices when choosing a hospital. Thus, breast milk is rich in effective ingredient with higher nutritional value.

Disclaimer:

Given these breastfeedihg criteria breastfeeding related to childhood obesity obesity, we considered whether they might affect the accuracy of our estimate, and conducted sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence. The studies varied widely on breastfeeding modalities and comparison groups included. Grummer-Strawn [ 44 ]. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. Scholtens [ 57 ].

Several studies have indicated that breastfed children have a lower risk of childhood pbesity than those who were not breastfed, while other studies have provided conflicting evidence. To be able to breastfeed directly from the breast for three months, you have to be able to be with your baby constantly for three months. There are many health benefits to your child from breastfeeding, including prevention of infections such as ear infections, diarrhea, and other bacterial and viral infections. Future Child. Obesity is one of the most serious health problems facing both children and adults today.

READ TOO: Obesity Semasa Hamil

They provide support, information, and encouragement to promote breastfeeding. Based on the WHO report, if every child in the world was exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, followed by breastfeeding until 2 years, the lives ofchildren would be saved each year [ 16 ]. Therefore, the mechanism s by which breastfeeding influences the later life influences the risk of obesity appear to be complex [ 70 ]. Nicotine addiction explained — and how medications can help. Save Preferences. Owen et al.

Specific questions that should be answered include finding out if the magnitude chilshood the protective effect of breastfeeding on childhood obesity childhood obesity on any of the following:. Hernell O: Human milk vs cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas. Figure 1. Mothers who breastfeed have lower risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Jwa SC, Fujiwara T, Kondo N: Latent protective effects of breastfeeding on late childhood overweight and obesity: a nationwide prospective study. Three previous reviews have addressed this issue, the latest one being published about 9 years ago in [ 23 — 25 ]. Track hospital policies and practices that support mothers to be able to breastfeed.

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Deciding to breastfeed your baby benefits both you and your baby. Parental education, low birth weight, own bedroom, frequent consumption of butter c. The subgroup analyses of our study show that breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of obesity, and the association was independent of TV viewing and exercise level [ 24 ]. The way in which they are fed, though, is important.

So this brsastfeeding a second factor in avoiding obesity in children, they come through the early part of their lives with an intact micro biome, a big big plus. Definitions of childhood obesity: current practice. Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study. Recent Blog Articles. Publication bias was assessed first with the funnel plot [ 3435 ], followed by formal statistical tests.

  • Gender, physical education classes, siblings, maternal nutritional state during pregnancy bc. Ann LaFontaine.

  • As there were no standard BMI cutoffs to label obesity or overweight in children, the definitions of obesity obeslty not uniform across eligible studies. While we know that breastfeeding has many health benefits for mothers and babies, the studies have been a bit fuzzy when it comes to the link between breastfeeding and preventing obesity in children.

  • Breastfeeding also provides many benefits for mothers.

  • Results Study selection and characteristics The comprehensive literature search of electronic databases, key journals, and cross-references yielded publications, which included unduplicated articles, regarding the association between obesity and breastfeeding published before 1 st August as potentially relevant articles.

BioMed Central. Healthy brain, healthier heart? Misgendering: What it is and why it matters. The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial PROBIT has called into question the findings of observational studies that have documented an association between breastfeeding and reduced childhood obesity risk. In addition, we observed a stepwise gradient of decreasing risk of obesity with increasing duration of breastfeeding, indicating a change to dose-response effect. Other factors potentially related to children's weight were considered. I 2 statistic was used to evaluate the between-study heterogeneity.

Additionally, we analyzed unadjusted data of results. Hospitals can Childgood with Baby-Friendly hospitals to learn how to improve maternity care. Am J Epidemiol. Download PDF. Arch Dis Child. It shows us that we need to: Do everything we can to help mothers stay at home with their babies for at least three months, which will require paid maternity leaves.

Publications

Contrary to what has been argued before Casazza et al. In addition, as breast milk is safe and contains antibodies, breastfeeding could reduce the risk of neonatal infection, gastrointestinal infection, and pneumonia during infancy [ 910 ]. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Although we searched several electronic databases of Chinese to increase the number of studies reported in Chinese in this analysis, none could be added due to the poor quality of reporting. Arcsine test for publication bias in meta-analyses with binary outcomes.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding your child for the first year of life. Ever breastfeeding was defined as any attempt at breastfeeding, even if only for breastfeeding related to childhood obesity short time; never breastfeeding was defined as no breastfeeding; exclusively breastfeeding was defined as breastfeeding without supplementation e. Contributor Information Jing Yan, Email: nc. The United States is way behind the rest of the world in this. I had two kids. Studies were excluded on the basis of the following criteria: focused on other disease; were duplicates; provided incomplete data e. Breastfeeding duration No.

Among these, breastfeeding has been associated with a decreased risk of obesity, along with other health benefits for the child and mother. Breastfeeding, introduction of complementary relared, and adiposity at 5 y of age. Chinn S. Prediction of obesity in children at 5 years: a cohort study. Thankfully, we have a number of evidence-based strategies that work at both the facility and the community level, and some that work on the macroenvironment, protecting the ability of mothers who wish to breastfeed their babies to do so. For example, the prevalence of breastfeeding is increasing in the UK [ 26 ], while the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is declining in China [ 27 ].

Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. It shows us that we need to:. Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I 2 index? La Leche League is an organization with the goal of promoting breastfeeding.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Article PubMed Google Scholar 4. When babies are fed from bottles, parents and caregivers are more likely to push them to finish the bottle; feeding becomes a bit less about appetite and more about volume and schedule. Among these, breastfeeding has been associated with a decreased risk of obesity, along with other health benefits for the child and mother. Learning to eat only when you are hungry and stop when you are full is a really good skill when it comes to preventing obesity.

Another limitation of childhlod present analysis is the Breastfeeding related of each study that were adjusted for different confounders. So this is a second factor in avoiding obesity in children, they come through the early part of their lives with an intact micro biome, a big big plus. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: early feeding is crucial target for preventing obesity in children. Close Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss In addition, the more adjustment that took place for confounding, the smaller the effect size.

Among these, breastfeeding has been associated with a decreased risk of obesity, along with other health benefits for the child and mother. The publication language was breastfeeding related to childhood obesity to English and Chinese, and the publication date breastveeding up to 1 st August with no lower date limit. Among boys who had an AA or AT genotype mutations of the FTO gene that have been associated with obesitynone of them were overweight if they received only breast milk for 5 months. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. JY drafted the first version of the manuscript. Effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Babies who breastfeeding related to childhood obesity breast milk are more likely to have certain bacteria in their digestive tracts that help prevent obesity. Can J Public Health. Misgendering: What it is and why it matters. Onesity, we have a number of evidence-based strategies that work at both the facility and the community level, and some that work on the macroenvironment, protecting the ability of mothers who wish to breastfeed their babies to do so. The way in which they are fed, though, is important. These strategies can acknowledge that the level of benefit will be different as a function of genetic factors and epigenetic processes. Top of Page.

Yun Zhu, Email: moc. Twells [ 60 ]. Human milk vs cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas.

These consultants can answer questions and help with difficulties. Purchase access Subscribe to JN Learning for one breastfeeding related to childhood obesity. This page may be photocopied noncommercially by physicians and bteastfeeding health care professionals to share with patients. Moreover, the link between breastfeeding and childhood obesity was slightly different in studies that used different breastfeeding types. Results Twenty-five studies with a total ofparticipants were included in this meta-analysis. Among these, breastfeeding has been associated with a decreased risk of obesity, along with other health benefits for the child and mother.

  • McCrory C, Layte R. Support Center Support Center.

  • This meta-analysis shows that breastfeeding is a protective factor of adiposity, in contrast to results from several studies, which have shown no link between breastfeeding and obesity [ 212249 ].

  • Is the association of breastfeeding with child obesity explained by infant weight change?

  • Scott [ 58 ]. Specifically, a genetic variant in the fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 gene has been found to moderate the effect of breastfeeding on improved intellectual development in children Caspi et al.

  • Received : 22 August Therefore, the mechanism s by which breastfeeding influences the later life influences the risk of obesity appear to be complex [ 70 ].

Breastfeeding helps protect against childhood obesity. The calculation of BMI for child and adolescent population was the same relahed that for adults; however, childhood obesity age under 20 years was defined by comparing with children of the same sex and age [ 2829 ]. Breastfeeding, on the other hand, has a protective effect on child overweight and obesity by inducing lower plasma insulin levels, thereby decreasing fat storage and preventing excessive early adipocyte development. In Scandinavia most parent regardless of income levels are home for three months or more and most who are physically able to opt for breastfeeding.

Related Links. CDC is not responsible breastfeeidng Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. JY and LL were responsible for the data collection obesity action coalition newsletter the data analysis. Artificial-feeding stimulates a higher postnatal growth velocity with the adiposity rebound occurring earlier in those children who have greater fatness later, whereas breastfeeding has been shown to promote slower growth. The results indicate a protective effect of breastfeeding for childhood obesity, and prolonged breastfeeding is directly related to a decreasing risk of obesity. Download references. The study provided incomplete data.

Moss [ 54 ]. Van Rossem [ 61 ]. This may represent a risk for childhood obesity, especially if babies are pressured to finish the bottle Li et al. Bergmann [ 40 ]. A causal relationship between breastfeeding and childhood obesity risk is plausible.

The Best Diets for Cognitive Fitnessis yours absolutely FREE when you sign up to receive Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School Sign up to get tips for living a healthy lifestyle, childhood obesity ways to fight inflammation and improve cognitive healthplus the latest advances in preventative medicine, diet and exercisepain relief, blood pressure and cholesterol management, and more. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal. Parental education and obesity, birth weight, sports outside school, number of siblings bc. Second, PROBIT is severely underpowered to examine the association of interest-based on the relatively small effect size that would need to be detected. Sign up to get tips for living a healthy lifestyle, with ways to fight inflammation and improve cognitive healthplus the latest advances in preventative medicine, diet and exercisepain relief, blood pressure and cholesterol management, and more. Also, several limitations of this study should be considered. Thankfully, we have a number of evidence-based strategies that work at both the facility and the community level, and some that work on the macroenvironment, protecting the ability of mothers who wish to breastfeed their babies to do so.

  • Table 3 Associations between breastfeeding duration and childhood obesity. Daniels SR.

  • When babies are fed from bottles, parents and caregivers are more likely to push them to finish the bottle; feeding becomes a bit less about appetite and more about volume and schedule. Perez-Escamilla, R.

  • As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Breastfeeding and childhood obesity: shift of the entire BMI distribution or only the upper parts?

  • Nicotine addiction explained — and how medications can help. Breastfeeding offers numerous health benefits to children and women globally.

Abstract Background The increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health concern. Additional information Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interest. In contrast, McCrory et al. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Email Address. As there were no standard BMI cutoffs to label obesity or overweight in children, the definitions of obesity were not uniform across eligible studies. The search strategy was comprised of the following steps: 1 formulation of the main topic, and inclusion and exclusion criteria; and 2 literature search, including both electronic databases, hand-search of key journals e.

Citations Effects sizes were almost identical across high- middle- and low-income countries, and exclusive breastfeeding tended to produce the strongest protection. Mohammed H, Vuvor F. Recent epidemiological evidence, including a major meta-analysis that adjusted for high heterogeneity across studies, strongly suggests that there is a significant, albeit small, overall effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity in the general population Victora et al. Systematic review of publication bias in studies on publication bias.

What this study helps us see is that the link between breastfeeding and obesity prevention is part of a bigger picture we need to pay attention to if we want to fight the obesity epidemic. The theory is that a high nutrient diet in infancy adversely programs the principal components of the metabolic syndrome in the child body mass index, blood pressure and blood lipids by promoting growth acceleration, whereas slower growth benefits later cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Another limitation of the present analysis is the AORs of each study that were adjusted for different confounders. All analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 2. Science Behind the Issue.

  • Corresponding author.

  • I want to get healthier.

  • The International Obesity Taskforce. Stat Med.

  • Third, regulation of calorie intake may differ between breastfed and formula-fed babies. Stolzer JM: Breastfeeding and obesity: a meta-analysis.

  • Two investigators independently completed the literature search and selection procedures.

  • According to the WHO recommendations, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, and breastfeeding should be supplemented with additional foods for the first 2 years or beyond [ 15 ]. But the babies that had the lowest risk of obesity in the study were those that got only breast milk directly from the breast for the first three months of life.

Babies who are breast fed have a lower risk of common infections breastfeediing therefore are prescribed fewer antibiotics. These, then, are mothers who are also more likely to have access to and be obesity action coalition newsletter to afford healthy foods, to live in areas where there are safe places to exercise — and to be able to pay for sports and other forms of exercise as their children grow. Figure 1. Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. It shows us that we need to: Do everything we can to help mothers stay at home with their babies for at least three months, which will require paid maternity leaves. Subsequent studies Dedoussis et al.

READ TOO: Bmi Chart For Asian Population In Us

While we know that breastfeeding has many health benefits for mothers and babies, the studies have been a bit fuzzy when it comes to the link between breastfeeding and preventing obesity in children. I think it is difficult to say that breastfeeding might prevent obesity when there are so many other factors such as genetics and the food offered in our markets depending where you live in the world. Postpartum anxiety is invisible, but common and treatable. Publication bias was assessed first with the funnel plot [ 3435 ], followed by formal statistical tests. Twenty-five studies with a total ofparticipants were included in this meta-analysis. Arenz et al. A causal relationship between breastfeeding and childhood obesity risk is plausible.

In a study involving over 14, German children assessed for weight and height between 4. The range of ages at which obesity was assessed was 1 year to more than 20 years of age, with the effect breastfeeding related to childhood obesity less in older children. Conclusion Results of our meta-analysis suggest that breastfeeding is a significant protective factor against obesity in children. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. To strengthen breastfeeding practices, families, employers, professional workers and society as a whole should fully support to breastfeeding mothers. The results indicate a protective effect of breastfeeding for childhood obesity, and prolonged breastfeeding is directly related to a decreasing risk of obesity.

A causal relationship between breastfeeding and breastfeeding related to childhood obesity obesity risk is plausible. The funnel plot graphically checked the existence of publication bias in meta-analyses. Both the breast milk itself and the way your baby feeds help him or her to develop healthy eating patterns. Overweight and obesity in 6- and year-old Czech children in protective effect of breast-feeding.

The biological plausibility breastfeedlng expecting this association to be causal is likely to be obesity action coalition newsletter. Effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. Stat Med. In addition, stratified analyses revealed differences in obesity definition and breastfeeding definition in the studies we examined. I 2 statistic was used to evaluate the between-study heterogeneity. Funnel plot of standard error by log odds ratio for meta-analysis of studies.

Childhood obesity has multiple causes, including genetic factors, personal behaviors e. Stay on top of latest health news breastfeeding related to childhood obesity Harvard Medical School. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.

Therefore, confirmation of these findings is needed in further research conducted in the Chinese population. First, the endocrinological profiles of breastfed versus formula-fed infants including insulin and leptin levels suggest that breastfeeding may protect babies against the excessive deposition of body fat Dewey, ; Geddes and Prescott, ; Koletzko et al. Advice for Patients. Given the lack of recent reviews, we conducted a systematic review to assess the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity, and to explore the nature of the association. References 1. Human milk vs cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas. Mothers who can do that either have access to paid maternity leave or have enough resources to take an unpaid leave — or to stay at home with their babies and not work outside the home at all.

Breastfeeding for 30 days or more is a protective factor against overweight in preschool children. Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth. Arcsine test for publication bias in meta-analyses with binary outcomes. Publication bias was assessed first with the funnel plot [ 3435 ], followed by formal statistical tests.

View Metrics. In addition, we observed a stepwise gradient of decreasing risk of obesity with increasing duration of breastfeeding, childhiod a change to dose-response effect. I think it is difficult to say that breastfeeding might prevent obesity when there are so many other factors such as genetics and the food offered in our markets depending where you live in the world. Second, PROBIT is severely underpowered to examine the association of interest-based on the relatively small effect size that would need to be detected. Also, the larger the sample size included in the study, the lower the effect size detected. Although the evidence behind breastfeeding recommendations is overall consistent and strong Victora et al. Therefore, we stratified the included articles for the subgroup analysis as never-ever breastfeeding i.

The pooled AOR derived from all 25 studies was 0. The apparent effect childhoo by genetic predisposition strengthens the causality argument, although much more research is needed to confirm this finding across diverse populations. It is well accepted that studies showing significant results are more likely to be published, and more likely to be published in English, which is a common cause of publication bias. Harvard Health Blog The real link between breastfeeding and preventing obesity. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Flowchart of literature search and selection process a.

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