Abdominal obesity and carddiovascular metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis. Appropriate waist circumference cut-off points among Iranian adults: the first report of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity. Baur, and L. FBG was measured using the glucose oxidase method intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 2. B In this chart metabolic syndrome was defined without the waist component.
Golley, A. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Endocrine 13 : — Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by incretins, like GLP-1, which are gut hormones released in response to a meal and influence regulation of insulin and the cardiovascular system.
The wide prevalence range can be explained by the variety of populations and the times of the study in recent decades. Sci Rep 9,
Validity of cardiovascular risk prediction models in Latin America and among Hispanics in the United States of America: a systematic review. Rodriguez, and M. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist to height ratio more than 0.
In line with previous studies conducted among children and adolescents in Iran and those performed in Turkey, our results revealed that high triglyceride levels and low HDL-C levels were the most frequent components of the MetS, indicating an ethnic predisposition toward this type of dyslipidemia in the region [ 4344 ].
Gheiratmand, G. After complete explanation of the study objectives and protocols for the students and their parents, a written informed consent was obtained from the parents and oral assent from students.
Sci Total Environ. Meanwhile, the most prevalent MetS component for Kurd participants is low high-density lipoprotein for women and a raised WC for men.
Johnson, J. Cardiology research.
More recently, the use of computed tomography has been proposed to evaluate the characteristics of perivascular adipose tissue composition which appears to identify patients with stable coronary disease at increased risk for acute coronary syndromes [ 40 ]. More ». An epidemiological study in Sweden. Sanchez et al. Obes Rev 1 : 47 — The production of these cytokines is increased in obese persons.
Advanced Search. Abdominal fat is located in two major compartments: sc and ip visceral. The relationship of obesity to major and emerging risk factors varies, depending on the genetic and acquired characteristics of individuals. Excessive influx of NEFAs into muscle leads to insulin resistance. Cardiovascular risk It is well known that obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD and one of the main causes of the increased risk of diseases such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, high blood pressure HBP or hypertension, and atherosclerosis both in adults and children [ 2324 ].
Most persons with multiple metabolic risk factors are insulin resistant. Although the QoL questionnaire has been validated before, but we believe that for some people it was difficult to answer some items like questions about their income. Article Navigation. Ferrannini, and M. Orlistat has proven to be a well-tolerated anti-obesity drug, to be used additionally to dietary and lifestyle changes [ 575859 ] Table 1. Diabetes 45 : — Study Population The study sample was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged between 10 and 18 years.
However, only limited attention has been paid to ethnic differences in the prevalence of MetS and its components. Bassali, S. Global stroke statistics.
Patient Prefer Adherence. But obesitg persons with insulin resistance, confounding by other known risk factors makes it difficult to be certain that insulin resistance or resulting hyperinsulinemia is directly atherogenic Both authors, CC and FF, contributed with the literature review and made the critical review for intellectual content. Johnson, J. Weiss, J. The relationship of excess body weight and health-related quality of life: Evidence from a population study in Taiwan.
Data set that contain all variables used for results. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Article Google Scholar 4. Comparison of percentages of the categorized variables was made using the Pearson Chi-square test.
They found a higher prevalence of the syndrome when the age- and gender-specific latter definition was used. Disease pathogenesis The pathogenesis of obesity is influenced by the balance between calories consumed and energy expenditure followed by the reset of body weight [ 135 ]. The overall results of this trial suggested cardiovascular safety in a large high-risk population of subjects with overweight or obesity [ 70 ] Table 1. Download other formats More. After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Several recent reports 25 — 28 indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for both ASCVD and type 2 diabetes.
Effect of naltrexone-bupropion on major adverse cardiovascular events in overweight and obese patients with cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0. Do lifestyle interventions work in developing countries? After 1 year of treatment,
The maximum and minimum prevalence of metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular patients were related to the studies by Anvari et al. Weiss, J. Results Of participants, were evaluated, and records were removed because metaoblic incomplete demographic or clinical information to assess accurate MetS measurements. The metabolic syndrome in older individuals: prevalence and prediction of cardiovascular events: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants among Iranian adults: evidence of IraPEN survey on a bi-ethnic population. Strong associations of MetS prevalence were found with being older, being female, being overweight or obese, having a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and having a history of diabetes and CVD in the family in both the Turk and the Kurd ethnicity in the multivariate model. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.
Cardiovsacular, S. HE et al. Overall it seems that since MeS has WC as one of its components and BMI still remains the most commonly used index used in clinical practice, it would be advantageous to implement MeS in defining BMI cut-off points [ 1 ]. Since all of our participants were volunteers the ''Healthy Worker'' effect also remains a debatable issue in our study. Strength and limitations Our study is the first large community-based survey comparing MetS prevalence between two large ethnic groups of the Iranian population in the region. Project administration: RH. All the methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.
Several recent reports 25 — 28 indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for both ASCVD and type 2 diabetes. With a metabolif selectivity of 15 times higher affinity for 5-HT2C than for 5-HT2A receptors and times higher selectivity for 5-HT2C than for the 5-HT2B receptors, seen as an advantage to both its efficacy and safety since its appetite-suppressing effects act while avoiding cardiovascular effects which are usual in other nonselective serotonergic weight-loss medications [ 6068 ]. This finding has suggested that obesity is a proinflammatory state and is somehow connected with the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Their precise role, however, remains to be fully determined.
Misra, J. The resulting insulin resistance in muscle predisposes to hyperglycemia; the latter becomes clinically manifest in those persons to acquire a defect in insulin secretory capacity. The consequences of these defense mechanisms undoubtedly contribute to metabolic risk factors.
This study was not without limitations. Iranian Heart Journal. Annals of nutrition metabolism. Efficiency of anthropometric disk of obesity for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese population. Among the risk factors studied, high TG gave It has been demonstrated that individuals with MetS are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events and diabetes.
The most important systems regulating body weight and appetite are the adipose tissue, gastrointestinal hormones and nervous system, which receive signals and, in response, generate the appropriate stimuli [ 5 ]. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome and obesity in an Iranian population. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24 : e13 — e Gandhi H, Balaraman R. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk: rationale for screening and primary prevention.
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Which measures of obesity best predict cardiovascular risk? Sibutramine induces satiety and an increase in energy expenditure, however it also increases blood pressure, pulse rate, or both due to its sympathomimetic effects, therefore is not indicated for patients with history of cardiovascular disease [ 5974 ]. Diabetes 45 : — Registered weight loss observed was of 5.
Finally, the results of the present study suggest cut points for our community. Kelishadi, G.
Design, methods and initial experience. There was no statistical difference by age, smoking, hypertension, total cholesterol, triglyceride cholesterol, HbA1c, or fasting glucose.
Golley, A. Table 3.
Calculated areas under the ROC curves for the studied risk factors in both genders. Syncrome in cardiovascular medicine. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular patients in Iran in the 27 papers examined with a sample size of 44, patients was The school-based nationwide health survey was conducted to asses nationally representative high-risk behaviors in school student in Iran
Additionally, training should be offered through relevant platforms and media to raise the awareness of individuals, to promote early diagnosis of the condition. With regards to the effect of year of study and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular patients in Iran, it was observed that this prevalence has an ascending trend among Iranian patients. Results There were school students girls and boys in the study sample, which represented a population of almost 16 million students Table 1. Optimal cut off points of BMI was
International Journal of Endocrinology
Medical Clinics. One of the confounding factors that influence the difference in cut-off points among studies, other than ethnic differences, could be the different age groups selected for the studies, as we know increased age can change body composition regarding total and distribution of body fat and especially metabolic factors [ 29 ]. In this study, all of the studies conducted on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular patients in Iran, published between January and until Maywere examined in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines. Paradis, J. Morrison, and S.
Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular patients in Iran is high. Diabetes Care. PloS one. Metrics details. Li, and E. Among both ethnicities, being a female Turk [OR 3. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its components among Turkic and Kurds ethnic groups in a bi-ethnic Turk and Kurd population.
View at: Google Scholar C. Al-Lawati et al. The current definitions of central adiposity or waist circumference are based on data from western populations. Goodman et al.
For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0. Goodman, S. These observations are in agreement with the LEADER trial results, a large trial testing the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide 1. Calculated areas under the ROC curves for the studied risk factors in both genders.
Based on our results, 2. N Engl J Med. Received 14 Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Chew, C. Ferreira, C. These factors tend to cluster together, suggesting a common etiology, and places the individuals at an increased risk for disfase 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and cardiovascular disease CVD [ 12 ]. Ford and C. When we excluded waist circumference, the optimum BMI cut-off for acquiring metabolic risk factors in males decreased to The total number of participants selected in the meta-analysis was One of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and its resulting mortality rate is metabolic syndrome [ 56 ].
Ang, S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants among Iranian adults: evidence of IraPEN survey on a bi-ethnic population. The authors would like to thank Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for their financial support of the study.
Download citation. Heshmat, M.
Leptin influences the nitric oxide production and activates the sympathetic system, causing sodium retention, systemic vasoconstriction, and blood pressure elevation.
Naqadeh is a city in the western part of Azebaijan province in Iran and features the two largest ethnic groups of Trukic and Kurds The study by Goodman et al.
When excluding waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors Bonadonna RC, Muggeo M.
The presence of IGT indicates an increased risk for type 2 diabetes 8.
Each of these products has been implicated in the causation of one or another of the metabolic risk factors. Approach to diagnosing a pediatric patient with severe insulin resistance in low- or middle-income countries. Two patients in the NB32 group reported cholecystitis as serious adverse event [ 576072 ]. Adeli, A. This substance has been reported to have antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. Ardalan, R. The adipose tissue, which is in fact a dynamic organ, is divided in white adipose tissue WAT and brown adipose tissue BAT and is associated with metabolic and inflammatory systems, with protective effects on energy homeostasis.
Johnson, J. Recently, the International Diabetes Federation has presented a cardiovaecular definition for metabolic syndrome. Modesti, P. The inconsistency of "optimal" cutpoints obtained using two criteria based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. The presence of any of these factors was considered as dyslipidemia. Three-fifths of the participants were Turk BP was measured 3 consecutive times with an interval of 5 minutes from the right arm, after each participant had rested for at least 10 minutes and finally a mean of the three measurements was considered as the blood pressure.
International Journal of Endocrinology
Strong associations were found between MetS prevalence and being older, being female, being overweight, being obese, having a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and having a history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease CVD in the family for both Turks and Kurds. The deputy of research and technology —Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing of the manuscript. We used the logistic regression model to predict components of the MeS based on different BMI cut-off points.
Discussion Our results did not find any significant association between QoL various domains and Mets syndrome except social relations and physical health that was significantly higher in women with MetS than those without MetS Table 2.
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Discussion This cross-sectional study was conducted in a bi-ethnic population in Naqadeh, Iran, to estimate MetS prevalence by covering more than participants. Daniels, J.
Qual Life Res. The majority of obese persons who develop ASCVD typically have a clustering of major and emerging risk factors metabolic syndrome.
The fatty acids released by visceral fat drains into the portal circulation. Giles, and W. Elevated plasma glucose. According to recent estimates, the age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was about Perhaps more likely, the obesity-induced procoagulant and antifibrinolytic factors contribute to a worsening of acute coronary syndromes.
While 2—14 percent of the Iranian children and adolescents as young as 6 years were diagnosed with MetS in the first nation-wide survey of the Caspian, the present study revealed the condition affecting
Obesity seems to be related to cardiovascular events in part due to an imbalance between protective and harmful microbiome, which may determine low-grade inflammation through the activation of inflammasomekey metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide TMAOand impairment of the innate immune system [ 5556 ].
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with cardiovascular disease in Isfahan was 1. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages.
The metabolic syndrome: a new worldwide definition.
Anthropometric indices as determinants of haemorheological cardiovascular disease risk factors in Nigerian adults living in a semi-urban community. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Leptin also may play a systemic role beyond being an adipose tissue-derived appetite suppressant. Delvin, J. Cardiovasc Diabetol 1 : 1. Obesity is rampant in the United States and is becoming increasing common worldwide. In the presence of obesity, these products are released in abnormal amounts. After 1 year of treatment,
With this said, the fundamental challenge is how to intervene at the public health level to reduce the high prevalence of obesity in the general population. Finally, increased perivascular adipose tissue promotes local inflammation and impairment of endothelium function. Delavari, and R. NB 16 and NB 32 showed significant improvements in waist circumference, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein hsCRP and HDL cholesterol levels over placebo [ 576072 ]. Although the MetS has been extensively studied in adults, not much is known about the condition in children and adolescents. Objective: Evaluating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population aged 25 to 50 in Santa Rosa de Osos, Antioquia, Colombia, during
Body fat and metabolic syndrome
The risk for disease increases over time as the number of metabolic syndrome characteristics accumulates; therefore, early intervention is warranted. Major cardiovascular events like cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke, in a median follow-up of 3. Cook et al.
However, no comprehensive study has been conducted to combine the results of existing studies. Study Population The study sample was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged between 10 and 18 years. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. The study sample was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged between 10 and 18 years. Agirbasli, S. When excluding waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors
Introduction On metabolic syndrome MetS has been defined as a constellation of risk factors, including obesity, high levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum levels of fasting plasma insulin, and hypertension. Anatol J Cardiol. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
Categories of obesity
Stern, and S. Ribeiro, G. From among the studied students, Background Obesity, generally defined as an excess of body-fat mass, is a known global epidemic that can have very serious consequences like increased risk of morbidity and reduced life expectancy [ 123 ]. Diabetes 52 : —
In our study, overweight and obese individuals had a higher risk of MetS by four and two times, respectively, among both Turks and Kurds.
However, in our multivariate analysis after adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors, significant association was observed only between social relations and health domains of QoL and MetS.
More related articles. In addition, because children and adolescents are growing, it is impossible to choose a single cut point for a risk factor.
Being female, living in a rural area, increasing age, being overweight or obesity, having a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and having a history of diabetes and CVD in the family were the strongest sociodemographic predictors of MetS.
Up to this date the optimum BMI for definition of disease has been a subject of great consideration among different researches. Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Not declared. Trends in overweight, obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults between — and — Tehran lipid and glucose study. One of the major strengths of this work was the usage of a large sample size of patients with cardiovascular disease in Iran, thus enhancing the generalizability of our findings.
The consequences of these defense mechanisms undoubtedly contribute to metabolic risk factors. A clinically accessible diagnostic tool is therefore needed to identify the syndrome in children and adolescents. Hypertension and health-related quality of life: an epidemiological study in patients attending hospital clinics in China. Metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired health-related quality of life: Lapinlahti study. Burgert et al.
The mean age of the participants was years without significant difference in terms of gender. Baur, and L. Delvin, J. Baxter, and Z. Since the prevalence has a binomial distribution, the variance of prevalence was calculated using a binomial distribution variance formula. The metabolic syndrome, depression, and cardiovascular disease: interrelated conditions that share pathophysiologic mechanisms. Dyslipidemia was significantly more prevalent among girls
J Am Coll Cardiol. These interventions should result in a change of lifestyle, regularly controlling blood sugar and lipid levels of patients to prevent the disease and its associated complications. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with cardiovascular disease in Isfahan was 1. Heshmat, M. Misra, J.
Role of gut microbiota in chronic low-grade inflammation as potential driver for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of human studies. Metabolically healthy people with obesity Metabolically healthy people with obesity MHO are people with obesity that do not present increased cardiometabolic risk, i. Side effects commonly reported were dry mouth, paresthesia, flu, upper respiratory infection, change in taste and insomnia [ 60 ]. Misra and N. Correspondence to F.
Abstract Objective. Low HDL-C was present in Overall among metabolic risk factors, abnormal HDL In a study conducted by Schwandt et al. Harikrishnan, S. Diabetes Res Clin Pract.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found; this may lead to increased cardiovascular disease in the medium- and long-term. Gheiratmand, K. Find articles by Behzad Zolfaghar. This concept generally is not accepted by the hypertension community, nor was it supported by the Framingham Heart Study
Steinbeck, L. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its determinants among Iranian adults: evidence of IraPEN survey on a bi-ethnic population. Study Population The study sample was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged between 10 and 18 years. The school-based nationwide health survey was conducted to asses nationally representative high-risk behaviors in school student in Iran
Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. BMI cut-off points defined by the WHO, are based on the risk factors associated with development of disease, mostly cardiovascular disease. Comments By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. View at: Google Scholar C. View at: Google Scholar J. In the present study, similarly, dyslipidemia, high fasting glucose concentrations, and high blood pressure values were used to define MetS.
The cultural populaiton lifestyle patterns of the Turk population may further contribute to their higher prevalence of MetS. A study evaluating the value of different anthropometric indices for the detection of fibrinogen and overall cardiovascular risk [ 6 ], found WC to be the best predictor of CVD risk and fibrinogen levels. Esmailnasab, N. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in coronary artery disease patients.
Additional information Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Advanced search. Introduction Many anthropometric indices have been used to identify the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity. Ervin RB. These interventions should result in a change of lifestyle, regularly controlling blood sugar and lipid levels of patients to prevent the disease and its associated complications. Sanchez et al. Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometryvol.
In the present study, 27 papers were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis as medium or high quality articles, while eight studies which were assessed as low quality were removed. Acknowledgements This manuscript originated from a MSc. Metabolic syndrome and its association with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with left bundle branch block. Being female, living in a rural area, increasing age, being overweight or obesity, having a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and having a history of diabetes and CVD in the family were the strongest sociodemographic predictors of MetS.
Also, perivascular adipose tissue, particularly from obese individuals seems to promote local inflammation and impairment of endothelial function, thus providing a link between adipose tissue and vascular disease [ 39 ] Fig. This finding has suggested that obesity is a proinflammatory state and is somehow connected with the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Today, subjective well-being has become a part of health outcome evaluation in studies and clinical practice. The majority of obese persons who develop ASCVD typically have a clustering of major and emerging risk factors metabolic syndrome. Lorcaserin was overall well tolerated [ 6069 ]. Cite Cite Scott M. The risk for diabetes is highest in those with impaired fasting glucose or IGT.
Elevated blood pressure. Leptin also may play a systemic role beyond being an adipose tissue-derived appetite suppressant. In three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, sibutramine has reduced weight on average by 4. Goodman, S. References 1. Flickinger, D. JAMA : —
Male to female ratio was 1. Cardiol Clin 21 : — Tan, and E. In areas of the world in which these advances have not penetrated, obesity is not a significant public health problem. Limitation One of the limitations in the current study was its cross-sectional design that MetS and QoL were measured at the same time.
Thus, interventions should be put in onesity. Regarding MeS, After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of made up the population of the study. It has been demonstrated that individuals with MetS are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events and diabetes.
Lancet London, England.
De Ferranti, S. MAR has analysed the data and drafted the tables.
Received : 12 November Download other formats More.
Burgert et al. No evidence exists regarding the level of physical activity and diet habit differences of both Turk and Kurd individuals.
Although the MetS has been extensively studied in adults, not much is known about the condition in children and adolescents.
Height was measured without shoes using a stadiometer to the nearest 0. Journal populaation research in health sciences 14 4— Advanced search. Harikrishnan, S. Panethnic differences in blood pressure in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Zabetian, A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: A population-based study.
Regarding MeS, Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors. Advanced search. In cardiovascupar analysis MeS was defined by having at least three of the four other criteria of MeS. Anthropometric Measurements i Body Weight and Height. There is lack of consensus on the definition of the childhood MetS, and therefore the condition is defined using different criteria and cutoff points in various populations [ 89 ].
In another study [ 25 ] evaluating BMI based on metabolic risk factors conducted in Guatemala, as a developing country, they documented BMI cut-offs similar to our study as Erer, S. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with cardiovascular disease in Isfahan was 1.
Ma, J. The BMI was calculated as weight Kg divided by the squared height m 2.
Another subject that may explain the difference between our findings and others is the criteria for MetS definition. The LDL particles associated with the metabolic syndrome and atherogenic dyslipidemia tend to be small and dense.
The first limitation of our data was to consider how to define the MetS for adolescent population.
Caceres, C. In low-risk CVD patients, the distribution of body fat plays an important role in coronary atherogenesis, since it has been shown that a greater accumulation of fat tissue in the abdomen increases the risk of coronary calcification [ 45 ].
Methods About iraPEN program in naqadeh IraPEN is part of the national emtabolic transformation plan created in response to the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases, launched in by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, to provide universal health coverage, including access to noncommunicable disease prevention and care as well as mental health services
Different study designs may also explain the different results reported by various studies. With this said, the fundamental challenge is how to intervene metaboic the public health level to reduce the high prevalence of obesity in the general population. From all participant Obesity and increased adipose tissue influence the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Ghrelin is a gut peptide growth hormone with orexigenic action that acts on the hypothalamus receptors to exert metabolic effects by inhibiting insulin secretion and regulating gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. This greater release of NEFAs proceeds despite the higher insulin levels that are present in obese persons. Caceres, C.
Iranians are at higher risks of morbidity related to metabolic factors at a lower BMI cut-off with an estimated Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for their financial support of the study.
Annu Rev Med 53 : — The first nationwide survey of the CASPIAN study on 4, subjects reported that based on the same criteria used in the current survey, 2—14 percent of the Iranian children and adolescents as young as 6 years had the syndrome [ 7 ].
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and gender differences.
Results There were school students girls and boys in the study sample, which represented a population of almost 16 million students Table 1. The insulin resistance syndrome: implications for thrombosis and cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular risk and obesity.
Demographic characteristics The mean SD age of the participants was Alexander CM.
At week 56, weight change from randomization has shown an additional mean weight rlsk of 6. These observations are in agreement with the LEADER trial results, a large trial testing the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide 1. J Hypertens. The prevalence of MetS was The insulin resistance syndrome: implications for thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Daniels, J. In this analysis, all four domains of QoL were entered to the model as dependent variables.
This article facctors been cited by other articles in PMC. Questionnaires were completed for each participant that includes demographic data, past medical history and medication use. Categories of obesity Obesity can be defined as an excess of body fat. Liraglutide has been shown to directly stimulate pro-opiomelanocortin POMC neurons and inhibit neuropeptide-Y and agouti-related peptide neurons of the arcuate nucleus resulting in appetite suppression [ 62 ]. After the baseline survey, a five-year intervention program was started both in urban and rural areas of Isfahan and Najaf-Abad and was continued until Risk for type 2 diabetes in both men and women is increased about 5-fold 1. This article will first examine the variable characteristics of obesity; this will be followed by an examination of the relation of obesity to the metabolic syndrome; and finally, the relation of the metabolic syndrome to ASCVD will be reviewed.
Grundy SM Low-density lipoprotein, non-high-density lipoprotein, and itanian B as targets of lipid-lowering therapy. Obesity Silver Spring. Ann Epidemiol. A better way to define obesity would be in terms of percent total body fat 4. The risk for disease increases over time as the number of metabolic syndrome characteristics accumulates; therefore, early intervention is warranted.
British Hypertension Society. Each of these products has been implicated in the causation of one or another of the metabolic risk factors. They further may be more prone to atherogenic modification. External link. The pathogenesis of obesity includes the balance between calories consumed and energy expenditure followed by the maintenance of body weight. Table 3. New York: Wiley;
Intensive diabetes therapy and carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The impact of obesity on healthrelated quality-of-life in the general adult US population. The study participants consisted of students girls with mean age of years living in 23 provinces in Iran; Finally, the results of the present study suggest cut points for our community. Search all BMC articles Search. This complexity provides a great challenge for basic and clinical research. Read the winning articles.
A significant difference was observed between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and each of the two mentioned variables. Being female, populatjon in a rural area, increasing age, being overweight or obesity, having a higher waist-to-hip ratio, and having a history of diabetes and CVD in the family were the strongest sociodemographic predictors of MetS. A sensitivity analysis was performed to ensure the stability of the results, these results show that by omitting the prevalence from each study, the overall prevalence Some studies have shown that metabolic syndrome may be associated with atherosclerotic change and type 2 diabetes even from childhood [ 1920 ]. View at: Google Scholar P. Preventive medicine reports.
Formal analysis: MMN. Misra and N. Google Scholar. Blood Pressure Measurement Arterial blood pressure was measured manually using a mercury sphygmomanometer with a suitable cuff size for each participant after a 5-min rest in the supine position.
Li, and E. The cardiovasculaar of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic ROC curve analysis. One of the major strengths of this work was the usage of a large sample size of patients with cardiovascular disease in Iran, thus enhancing the generalizability of our findings. Ribeiro, G.
Table 1. Ferrannini, and M. Iranians are at higher risks of morbidity related to metabolic factors at a lower BMI cut-off and prompt action and preventive health policy are required to prevent and educate Iranians regarding diseases associated with obesity. P values less than 0. Received : 12 November Height was measured to its nearest 0.
Am J Public Health. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. Monday, December 28, Am Heart J. While at least one risk factor of MetS was reported in From all participant Ann Epidemiol.
Ball, G. Metabolic syndrome MeTS is a growing public health concern worldwide. Metabolic syndrome—a new world-wide definition.
Evaluation of health-related quality of life. This comes while blood pressure, lipid levels, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric variables change with age and pubertal development. Vasc Health Risk Manag. To reach their conclusions, Mehta and his team conducted an observational study of the NIH Psoriasis, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiometabolic Initiative cohort, which included patients with psoriasis, 80 of whom met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. After 1 year of treatment, patients treated with lorcaserin HCl lost an average of 5. For susceptible individuals, lesser accumulations of abdominal fat can precipitate or aggravate metabolic risk factors. Sanchez et al.
Different studies have reported inconsistent rates for the metabolic syndrome. These interventions should result in a change of lifestyle, regularly controlling blood sugar and lipid levels of patients to prevent the disease and its associated complications. Reprints and Permissions. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages. Appropriate waist circumference cut-off points among Iranian adults: the first report of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity.
Background: Despite unclear benefits of gluten-free diets GFD in the general population, gluten-free followers without medical indications are driving the market. Jia H, Lubetkin EI. Williams, M. And those with MetSyn had higher coronary artery plaque buildup, assessed by CTA, which is a high-risk factor for heart attacks. Adverse events were similar in the two groups, however patients in the lorcaserin group reported more serious hypoglycemia. Morrison, and S.