Obesity

Discordant twins obesity chart –

The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: a review. PubMed Google Scholar Crossref.

Am J Public Health. Ttwins for your next opportunity? In addition to the extensive individual-based analyses, the twin design provided information on the independent effect of smoking on weight status by comparing a discordant twins obesity chart sister or brother who had never smoked to their co-twin who had initiated smoking and then quit. Gestational age was identified by the date of the last menstrual period, and confirmed by B-ultrasound. Variables Maternal demographic characteristics including delivery age, education level, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy weight and height were self-reported at the first visit to community health centers for antenatal examination. Abstract To assess the relationship between gestational weight gain GWG of twin-pregnancy women and twin birth weights, as well as to evaluate whether pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI influences this relationship.

  • Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight: implications for obesity research among young adults. The significance of birth weight difference in discordant twins: a level to standardize?

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  • Swan GE, Carmelli D.

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Introduction

Discussion The prevalence of live born twins was The incidence of weight discordance has been reported between 9. S2 Table.

  • Available from: www. Before participating in the study, each woman received a written informed consent.

  • In the present study, it was clear that persistent physical activity in adolescence prevents adult obesity. Risk of obesity in relation to physical activity tracking from youth to adulthood.

  • Previous studies have reported that GWG in twin-pregnancy women was related to birth obesity chart 24252627 Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies.

  • Beyond homophily: a decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. The kappa value for obesity was 0.

  • However, in LF subgroup, the difference of weight increased at the age of six months and then leveled off afterward.

  • Findings from our sibling and twin study suggest that unmeasured, shared factors, such as maternal characteristics, may be responsible for the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity.

Table 1. Introduction Gestational weight gain GWG is an important indicator for monitoring and evaluating the nutritional status of pregnant women 1. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI, independent of genetic and shared environmental familial factors. BMI c measure.

Studies of twins: can they shed light on the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis? Most studies focus on growth of LBW compared with normal infants in singleton. Early Hum Dev82 : — Clin Pharmacol Ther.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Perinatal outcomes based on the institute of medicine guidelines for weight gain in twin pregnancies. Birth26 3 : — Sign up for Nature Briefing. Received Oct 15; Accepted May Smith GD.

Is China facing an obesity epidemic and the consequences? Onyiriuka AN. Study on possible increase in twinning rate at a small village in south Brazil. Model No. Heterogeneity analyses were conducted with the metan-procedure in Stata.

Typically, analysis discordant twins obesity chart identify not only the different classes of lipid that are in a given sample, but also the molecular species that make up those different classes. Med Decis Making. Females from the British cohort who were physically active at 16 years showed a slower gain in BMI between 16 and 45 years than less active females, whereas the reverse was found for males 4. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications for children, 1 and many of these prescriptions are inappropriate.

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View author publications. Pecheux, Dkscordant. A robust discordant twins obesity chart estimator was used to adjust for the non-independence of observations within twin pairs. Additionally, the sum birth weight of one twin pair increased by There was a similarity between design of the present study and the design employed by Reuner et al.

PLoS Med ; 5 : insig2 obesity facts The selection of twins for each analysis is illustrated in Figure 1. Reprints and Permissions. Demographic characteristics of the singleton and twin cohorts are shown in Table 1 and eTable 3 in the Supplementrespectively for month exposure windows, see eTables 4 and 5 in the Supplement.

Common gene polymorphisms and nutrition: emerging links with pathogenesis of insig2 obesity facts chronic diseases review. A linear regression analysis, with 0. Am J Public Health. Results: Incidence of dissimilar twins in birth weight was Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

Introduction

Chart Lipid Res ; 50 : — Baiges et al. Am J Health Behav ; 29 : — Figure 1. Measuring the microbiomic status of the gut environment allows for the study of the composition of all microbes in that ecosystem.

FTO has been shown to exert its primary effect on T2D risk through its impact on adiposity [ 8 ]. Antti Hakkarainen. Inflammation, defective mitochondrial function, and impaired adipogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue SAT have been thought to underlie some of the pathological metabolic changes observed in obesity 12. Validity of the questionnaire-reported physical activity and fitness was tested in a separate sub-sample 16 male pairs We analyzed the growth patterns of young adult MZ pairs discordant and concordant for obesity.

The significance of UPR mt in mammals is still unclear but two studies have demonstrated the existence of this stress response pathway in mouse 38 and human 39 muscle tissue. Association of antibiotics in infancy with early childhood obesity. Children Basel8 418 Apr Int J Rehab Res ; 34 : — Another study examined methylation changes in subjects that underwent gastric band surgery and were able to demonstrate significant effects on promoter methylation.

Bryan M, Heagerty PJ. Behav Brain Sci ; 10 : 1— Addressing current criticism regarding the value of self-report dietary data. Starling RD. Twin Res Hum Genet.

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Discoradnt no differences in TEE, BMR was significantly higher in twins with acquired obesity due to their larger body size. Data on height and weight were obtained in eight surveys self-report. Comparing nonparallel regression lines. Of the initially heavier twins, Identical but not the same: the value of discordant monozygotic twins in genetic research.

Schaal, J. Blake, R. Lutsiv, Discordant twins obesity chart. Intake of processed meat, but not sodium, is associated with risk of colorectal cancer: Evidence from a large prospective cohort and two-sample Mendelian randomization. Notably, even though BMI is shown to have strong correlation with body fat mass at the population level [ 47 ], we lack exact indicators for body adiposity in this data, as did a majority of related studies before. In addition, the rate of discordance determined by LBW as a cutoff point was Moreover, BMI is known to increase as adults age, at least until 60—70 years of age [ 30 ], and this increase is mainly due to an increase of fat deposits in mid-life [ 4546 ].

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Mia Urjansson is warmly thanked for excellent technical assistance. Friends and social contexts twwins unshared environments: a discordant sibling analysis of obesity- and health-related behaviors in young adolescents. Stat Med. Moving forward, confirmation of such findings could allow for a panel of plasma lipids to accurately depict the state of ectopic lipid deposition in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle and prove useful in the clinical setting [ 45 ]. Influence of peers and friends on children's and adolescents' eating and activity behaviors. This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your personal data in order to function.

Of the 6, twin-pregnancy women, Google Scholar PubMed. J Epidemiol Community Health. Iran J Pediatr13 1 : 47—

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The pathways that could distinguish between the obese metabolically healthy and unhealthy groups were pathways involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation pathway [ 33 ]. Original Investigation. View author publications.

Assessment of variability due to imputation showed that the discordant twins obesity chart component of variance due to variability in the parameter of interest across replicates was sufficiently small that only single imputation was used for all secondary models eTable 2 in the Supplement. Risk of obesity in relation discordang physical activity tracking from youth to adulthood. Numerous studies have investigated the lipidomic signature that is associated with increased fat mass in animal and human models. Baiges et al. About proteins were identified as common proteins between both groups lean and obese participantsand of these, 47 were differentially expressed by at least 1. Epigenetics and intervention studies The variation in epigenetic patterns with obesity has raised some interest in the field. Shotgun lipidomics refers to the process of identifying the lipidome of biological lipid extracts directly without the need for chromatographic purification.

While genetic regulation in a biological system is unequivocally vital to health and disease, mRNA transcript levels generally only partially correlate with protein expression [ 16 ]. On sibling designs. Physical activity and change in body mass index from adolescence to mid-adulthood in the British cohort. Download all slides.

Growth of a cohort of very low birth weight infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Obesitj, both smoking [ 14 ] and BMI [ 15 ] have moderate-to-strong underlying genetic components [ 16 ], and specific genetic variants have been identified to be associated with BMI and smoking explaining potentially the association [ 17 ]. Fig 3. Recently, several studies have showed the effect of LBW on the cognitive development of infants 20 —

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The group of men who rwins weight with the low calorie diet showed a significantly lower TNF a promoter methylation and that their baseline circulating Discordant twins obesity chart a levels were positively associated with total promoter methylation Campion, Milagro et al. Procedures for estimating nutrient values for food composition databases. External link. Table 2. Statistical Analysis. The relationship between physical inactivity in adolescence and obesity in adulthood has been weak or non-existent in the few published longitudinal studies 4 - 8. Download citation.

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Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. The risk of becoming obese in adulthood was 3. We thank obesity chart the twins who participated in this study. Conclusion: Acquired preference for fatty foods is associated with obesity, independent of genetic background. Discrepant body mass index: behaviors associated with height and weight misreporting among US adolescents from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study. The gut microbiota may play an important role in the balance between metabolic health and disease. Epigenomics is the study of alterations to the transcriptional activity of genes in response to environmental stimuli without altering the DNA sequence.

This difference was not present in boys. Close banner Close. Survey procedures have insig2 obesity facts described elsewhere and were approved by the institutional review board at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Trends in twin birth outcomes and prenatal care utilization in the United States, —

Received : 14 March The Add Health data set consists of a core sample plus additional subsamples, including full-sibling pairs and twin pairs, collected for the purpose of genetic analyses. Table 1.

The gut microbiota may play an important role in the balance between metabolic health and disease. However, a matched twin study, which would account for many of these factors and was well powered to find even small differences in weight gain, confirmed the results. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the development over time of BMI discordance in adolescent and adult MZ twin pairs and to examine lifestyle, metabolic, inflammatory and gene expression differences associated with concurrent and long-term BMI discordance in MZ pairs.

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Insig2 obesity facts ; 51 : — Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Salvy, SJ. Rissanen A. Dichotomizing continuous variables in statistical analysis: a practice to avoid. Jesper Lundbom. A time course analysis also revealed a large variation in when phosphorylation events occur following insulin treatment, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the pathways.

A twin study of self-regulatory eating in early childhood: estimates of genetic and environmental influence, and measurement considerations. A time course analysis discorfant revealed a large variation in when phosphorylation events occur following insulin treatment, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the pathways. Two recent studies have investigated the effects of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy on DNA methylation on the offspring. Rogosa D. Endocrine and metabolic adaptation to obesity and starvation. J Res Adolesc ; 21 : — Finally, the larger percentage of BMI discordance among heavier twins might be related to the pathogenesis of obesity.

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Those who perceived themselves as persistently unfit in adolescence had diecordant marked risk for disordant overall 5. SCFAs are organic acids with an aliphatic tail of insig2 obesity facts than six carbons and comprise of acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate and are used by the host as an energy source. To rule out that small differences in age between co-twins related to variation in the response time to questionnaires and because a subset of MZ co-twins who participated in the NTR biobank were not assessed on the same day influenced the within-pair comparison of BMI, we tested for differences in age at assessment; there were no differences in age between discordant twins in any of the groups. Differences in the distal gut microbiota of obese versus lean humans has been demonstrated with the relative proportion of the phylum of bacteria named bacteroidetes found to be decreased in obese individuals compared to lean individuals, along with the finding that the bacteroidetes abundance increase as obese individuals lose weight [ 55 ].

Trends of outpatient prescription drug utilization in US children, Commun Res ; 32 : — Brain Imaging and Behavior A twin study approach towards understanding genetic contributors to body size and metabolic rate.

Eur Respir Mon. Figure 4. We therefore suggest discorrant obese persons already at a young age easily fall below a level of physical activity that might be needed to maintain cardiovascular health. For 10 of the 14 biomarkers, the effect size was larger in longitudinally discordant pairs than in the total group of pairs who were BMI discordant at blood draw Supplementary Figure S1. The role of peer social network factors and physical activity in adolescent girls.

Advanced Search. Other lifestyle variables such as smoking, voluntary exercise and gene expression did not differ between the heavier and leaner twins. Adipose tissue and liver discordant twins obesity chart of SIRT1, 3 and 6 increase after extensive weight loss in morbid obesity. Weight discordance is very rare in monozygotic MZ twin pairs; when found, however, such pairs are advantageous in the search for either environmental or epigenetic causes and consequences of obesity. Data on adults from the UK indicate that total energy expenditure TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water methodbasal metabolic rate BMRand AEE activity-induced energy expenditure are increased in obesity due to the larger body size

Materials and Methods

Further research is warranted in underweight women with twin pregnancies to identify the optimal GWG and to improve pregnancy twuns. Full size table. One other study, Chu et al. Trends in cesarean delivery for twin births in the United States: — In LF subgroup, the difference in height after an increase at 6 month decreased at 12 month; it had an invariable trend up to 24 months.

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  • BMI discordance is uncommon in adolescent identical pairs but increases with higher pair-mean of BMI at older ages, although long-term BMI discordance is rare.

  • The complex independent and joint influences of intrauterine environmental and genetic factors on later size remain poorly understood. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author.

  • Weight gain in twin gestations: are the Institute of Medicine guidelines optimal for neonatal outcomes?

SirT3 regulates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. An interesting area of adipocyte biology is how the subcutaneous adipose tissue fat found under the hcart and largely around the hips, thighs and discordant twins is thought to be the more metabolically active and metabolically healthy type of fat and the visceral adipose tissue central obesity which is associated with metabolic dysfunction and disease differs. Obes Weight Loss Ther ; 4 : This resulted in the analysis of different metabolites 78 glycerophospholipids, 21 amino acids, 12 sphingolipids, 12 acylcarnitines, 10 biogenic amines and 1 hexose. Epidemiol ; 23 : — Antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed: effects of less well known antibiotics on gram-positive bacteria. These amino acids included levels of alanine, glycine, glutamate, tryptophan and tyrosine [ 30 ].

Brain Imaging and Behavior Psychol Bull ; disocrdant : — This is evident in a study of individuals which identified 34 bacterial taxa associated with body mass index and blood lipids [ 67 ]. Aging Cell. In addition, there was a clear trend for total PARP activity to be higher in the heavier co-twins.

Insig2 obesity facts 4. Shotgun lipidomics refers to the process of identifying the lipidome of biological lipid extracts directly without the need for chromatographic purification. The concordant co-twins, on the other hand, grew similarly and after 6 months, their mean growth was not distinguishable from the singleton patterns. The effects of the in utero environment on foetal programming in humans have not been well explored. Hum Mol Genet ; 11 : —

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The analyses within twin discordany, discordant for their smoking status, provide information regarding the role of genetic and shared environmental familial factors in the association between smoking and BMI [ 2728 ]. Discordant twins obesity chart weights were not computed for the oversampled persons participating in the sibling sample. The combined implication of comparing current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers with this twin design is that even though quitting smoking may lead to higher BMI after smoking cessation, smoking does not affect the profile of weight development once genes and familial effects are accounted for. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a model for the fetal origins of adult health.

In previous studies, the BMI discordant twins obesity chart former smokers has been higher than the BMI of never smokers [ 67oesity35 ], an effect also evident in male MZ twin pairs [ 3738 ]. Pre-pregnancy BMI was computed as: weight in kilograms divided by height squared in square meters. Hospital Stays for Newborns, This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Ozcan, T.

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Int Twis Obes. Five types of discordant twins obesity chart were verified to be higher in the central obesity group after multiple testing adjustments. Blood cells as a source of transcriptional biomarkers of childhood obesity and its related metabolic alterations: results of the IDEFICS study. Appetite ; 56 : 39— Reprints and Permissions. Spearman's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses of intra-pair differences all MZ pairs included were used to assess the relationships between physical activity, body composition and energy expenditure independent of genetic influences. Time points 4—7 and 9 are surveys and time point 8 represents the time point of blood draw NTR biobank.

Both researches compared the LBW and NBW neonates in a match design, however, in the present research the two cohorts were naturally matched. Anonymous Obes Rev. Further research is warranted in underweight women with twin pregnancies to identify the optimal GWG and to improve pregnancy outcomes. Full size table. From the initial 1, sibling pairs, there were 3, possible observations across the 3 study waves.

All rights reserved. Support Center Support Center. Discordant twins obesity chart contrast, a comparable 1. Increased eating as cnart behaviour compensating for not having tobacco to smoke is possible, but was not supported in either a population-based survey in which dietary energy density of former smokers was reported to be almost at the same level as that of non-smokers [ 42 ] or in men who quit smoking and whose calorie and alcohol consumption were followed for a year period [ 6 ]. Sci Rep 8,

Gov't, P. Int J Obes 41, — To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

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  • Neighborhood, family and peer-level predictors of obesity-related health behaviors among young adolescents. Conclusions: BMI discordance is uncommon in adolescent identical pairs but increases with higher pair-mean of BMI at older ages, although long-term BMI discordance is rare.

  • Full size table. Birth weight and body composition in young women: a prospective twin study.

  • Finally, to verify whether differences within MZ pairs are present before BMI discordance, biomarkers and discordant twins obesity chart expression differences were tested in a separate group of MZ pairs. Weight, height, whole-body fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometryabdominal sc and intra-abdominal fat by magnetic resonance imagingand liver fat by magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured as described earlier 2.

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Similar future studies investigating the impact of genetic risk factors on the metabolome can provide insight into how genes impact metabolism and contribute to the development of obesity. Statistical Analysis. Zeigler Z. Nat Rev Genet ; 13 : — In the present study, it was clear that persistent physical activity in adolescence prevents adult obesity. Traditionally, the expression of individual proteins has been quantified using antibodies and techniques such as western blotting but today many proteins and the whole proteome of a sample can be assessed at once by using various mass spectrometry approaches. Sensitivity analyses, however, suggest that this bias is insufficient to explain the lack of meaningful differences between exposed and unexposed children.

American journal of preventive medicine 20— Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics Smith GD. Finally, we chqrt not obtain the information of chorionicity and amnionicity of twins, which may affect the twin birth weight. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The Add Health data set consists of a core sample plus additional subsamples, including full-sibling pairs and twin pairs, collected for the purpose of genetic analyses.

Studying variation in these markers in BMI-discordant twins has the advantage that genetic pleiotropy is ruled out as a potential explanation for the association by design. Controlling for twin-shared factors, we confirm here the negative association of SIRT1 expression with multiple measures of adipose tissue inflammation. The concept of epigenetic regulation of obesity has become of great interest over the last decade and several studies have demonstrated that epigenetic modifications can occur very early in life which may predispose individuals to obesity later in life.

In the both female groups SF and LFthe mean weight of LBW and NBW in the present research was significantly different until two years of age, however, twwins the male groups SM and LM discordant twins obesity chart significant difference was present only at six months and disappeared in the second year of birth. Notably, our analyses are also cross sectional in their nature. In LF subgroup, the difference in height after an increase at 6 month decreased at 12 month; it had an invariable trend up to 24 months. In order to replicate the results, each researcher need to apply the data set from each individual twin cohort owners and to harmonize the data as a metafile.

  • Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Methods: This cohort study was conducted at Healthcare centers of Kashan, in

  • Validity of the questionnaire-reported physical activity and fitness was tested in a separate sub-sample 16 male pairs Relation between the changes in physical activity and body-mass index during adolescence: a multicentre longitudinal study.

  • There was a similarity between design of the present study and the design employed by Reuner et al. Early-life factors such as intrauterine growth may contribute to the development of obesity 34.

Introduction Gestational weight gain GWG is an important indicator for monitoring and obdsity the nutritional status of pregnant women 1. A robust variance estimator was used to adjust for the non-independence of observations within twin pairs. Addict Biol. In addition, this problem is an important cause of some diseases in the childhood The association between smoking cessation and BMI was analysed by comparing those who quit smoking former smokers with the current smokers referenceand finally the net effect of smoking cessation on BMI was analysed by comparing former smokers to never smokers reference.

Open in new tab. Given the dearth of evidence surrounding the association of GWG in women with twin pregnancies in large sample and in non-western industrialized twinns, the present study sought to fill this gap. Introduction Gestational weight gain GWG is an important indicator for monitoring and evaluating the nutritional status of pregnant women 1. Future studies analysing associations of smoking with BMI in different geographical or obesogenic environments and comparing associations in different birth cohorts are needed. Download citation.

Second, smoking quantity does not have a obesity chart dose—response association with weight: heavy chatt have had higher BMI and higher central adiposity than light smokers, even after controlling for other lifestyle factors and socio-demographic background [ 81013 ]. Sign In. If illogical data which was defined by experts in gynecology and obstetrics for example, the number of parity will be illogical if it is more than that of gravidity was inputted to the WMCHMIS, a warning was activated. Thus, these recommendations seem effective and deserve attention in clinical practice. Multiple pregnancy.

These diseases can confound BMI in any of the smoking behaviour groups. These are important findings because of the current discordant twins obesity chart and widespread public perception about the effect of smoking on weight control in younger birth cohorts today [ 31 ]. Analyses were performed in the same order as in the individual-based analyses. However, there is a lack of information regarding twins when only one is born with normal birth weight birth weight of gr to gr whereas the other one suffers from low birth weight. New issue alert. The funder Pfizer Inc did provide support in the form of consultation fees for authors JK and TK outside of the submitted work. Early risk factors for increased adiposity: a cohort study of African American subjects followed from birth to young adulthood.

Google Scholar. The methods were performed in obesity chart with the approved guidelines and regulations. This association was then stratified by per pre-pregnancy BMI among a population of women with twin-pregnancy in Wuhan, China. Therefore, other factors than smoking quantity seem to control weight gain after smoking cessation.

A comparison of self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in Australian adolescents. All prices are NET prices. I agree, dismiss this banner. The obese co-twins had less than half the activity 4. Study Design and Setting.

The effects of the in utero environment on foetal programming in humans have not been well facts. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Given that the role of SIRT5 in regulation of insulin sensitivity is unclear, the biological significance of this finding remains to be elucidated.

Xu, Z. The results of this current study were similar to one previous study. Clinics in Perinatology obeeity, 34 4 : — Multiple cohorts discordant twins obesity chart twin pregnancies have utilized the IOM revised guidelines to test their effectiveness. This finding suggests that genetic variants influence BMI, via smoking, other behavioural factors and environmental confounders. DNA methylation changes of whole blood cells in response to active smoking exposure in adults: a systematic review of DNA methylation studies.

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Discordant twins obesity chart Clin Trials ; 10 : — More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Such metabolites include hormones, fatty acids and amino acids [ 26 ]. Heavier and leaner twins equally often reported to participate in leisure time exercise regularly You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. We analyzed the growth patterns of young adult MZ pairs discordant and concordant for obesity.

New issue alert. In this study, Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Table 3 Characteristics of women and twin infants. Materials and Methods Ethics approval and informed consent The methods were performed in accordance with the approved guidelines and regulations.

  • Notably, those studies were based on male twins only and a majority of the twin individuals in those prior studies are not included in the CODATwins database [ 3738 ]. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS.

  • Inaccuracies in food and physical activity diaries of obese subjects: Complementary evidence from doubly labeled water and co-twin assessments.

  • The main outcome variable was birth weight. Ethics declarations Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests.

  • Nutritional interventions for twin pregnancies could be built into future studies to evaluate their impact on birth weight.

  • Return of experimentally induced chocolate craving after extinction in a different context: divergence between craving for and expecting to eat chocolate.

  • Levels of free fatty acids C, C, C, C, C remained elevated in obese as compared to lean subjects. Therefore, we went on to examine the differential expression of a set of nine UPR mt -related genes in the BMI-discordant twin pairs Figure 4.

Birth weight and body composition in young women: a prospective twin study. Smoking and nicotine are suggested to reduce weight both by increasing energy expenditure and by suppressing appetite [ 4 ]. Relation between weight and length at birth and body mass index in young adulthood: cohort study. These differences in body composition may modify the association between birth weight and later size, which we were not able to capture using BMI. Within sibling pairs, differences in birth weight and BMI were largest for full siblings and smallest for monozygotic twins.

A longitudinal twin study of skewed X chromosome-inactivation. Acta Genet Med Gemellol. Weight measurements identified as likely errors using an automated method eAppendix 1 in the Supplement were excluded. Figure 1. Twin Res ; 7 : —

Additionally, the sum birth weight of one twin pair increased twjns Each logistic model included adjustments for confounders. Waves II and III included an additional 29 respondents, for a total of 20, persons in the full cohort sample. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Persons who were high birth weight versus normal birth weight and had a nonobese mother were significantly more likely to be obese later in life.

Appetite ; 49 : — Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth. J Nerv Ment Dis ; : — Accelerometer measurements during three days in a male MZ obesity-discordant pair illustrating low overall and lack of high-intensity exercise in the obese co-twin. Figure 3. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies.

  • Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies.

  • Front Endocrinol Lausanne ; 3 : Since these two studies, there has been a boom in GWAS studies and subsequent obesity susceptibility loci identified.

  • Based on previous findings, we proposed a hypothesis that smoking might obfsity associated with BMI differently by sex and time-periods [ 93031 ]. Therefore, determining causation between quitting smoking and weight gain is not straightforward and a design that includes twin pairs, who share not only genes but generally also much of their early life exposures and experiences, can shed more light on the causal associations between smoking and BMI.

  • Of included women, Taking advantage of a nationally representative, prospective data set, we observed that maternal obesity modified the relation between birth weight and later obesity.

  • Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

These findings provide cogent evidence that sedentary lifestyle in adolescence triggers the development of obesity, which may lead to a self-perpetuating vicious circle of less activity, low energy expenditure and increasing adiposity. Lifestyle To assess whether BMI discordance in MZ twins is related to lifestyle differences, survey data collected in from discordant pairs were studied Figure 1c ; Table 2. Analysis of twin data using SAS. For a complementary, prespecified analysis designed to control for unmeasured environmental eg, household smoking, diet, hygiene or genetic factors that might confound the relationship between antibiotic use and weight gain, twin sets discordant in early-life antibiotic use were identified. Acquired obesity is associated with increased liver fat, intra-abdominal fat, and insulin resistance in young adult monozygotic twins. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions.

Long-term development of low-risk low birth dicsordant preterm born infants: neurodevelopmental aspects from childhood to late adolescence. Birth weight largely reflects the fetal growth and obesity chart. Using multivariate, longitudinal, random-effects Poisson regression modeling, we found a significant association between birth weight and obesity in persons with a nonobese mother Table 2. While there is growing evidence that early-life factors may influence later health outcomes, a better understanding of the pathways underlying this relation is needed. Full size image.

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