Obesity

Health conditions related to obesity in children: Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

Pharmacol Ther.

Helping kids lead healthy lifestyles begins with parents who lead by example. Sweet Drinks and Obesity Sweetened drinks are high in calories and contribute to obesity. There are also several methods to measure the percentage of body fat. Minus Related Pages. The author's found that authoritative feeding determining which foods are offered, allowing the child to choose, and providing rationale for healthy options is associated with positive cognitions about healthy foods and healthier intake.

  • Although, these methods are less accurate than research methods, they are satisfactory to identify risk.

  • Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of heart disease.

  • Many kids don't get enough physical activity. Prevalence of binge-eating disorder in obese children and adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment.

  • In addition, eating healthy foods and being physically active helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart disease.

References

Like adults, children become obese when they eat more calories than they use. Decreasing Calories To maintain a healthy weight, some children need to decrease the number of calories consumed and increase the number of calories burned. To maintain a healthy weight, some children need to decrease the number of calories consumed and increase the number of calories burned.

  • Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort. Acta Paediatr.

  • Another effective prevention measure against childhood obesity is the awareness of parents on the meal and snack portion sizes. Patient Educ Couns.

  • Plus, modern life is sedentary.

  • A study examining children aged 9—14 from —, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over the years. Decreasing Calories To maintain a healthy weight, some children need to decrease the number of calories consumed and increase the number of calories burned.

  • For example, one of the main limitations to the education of parents about childhood obesity is that typically written information is used as the conduit to health information and disease prevention.

Childhood overweight: A contextual model and recommendations for future research. To receive email updates cnditions this page, enter your email address: Email Address. Taking steps to prevent weight problems can help your child avoid other health issues. The short-term and long-term effects of obesity on the health of children is a significant concern because of the negative psychological and health consequences. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. This means eating a healthy diet based on vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, and lean protein.

LIVE 5-2-1-0!

Facts and Figures on Childhood Obesity. A study conducted examined the eating habits of lean and overweight adolescents at fast food restaurants. Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's expenditure of energy for normal resting functions.

About childhood obesity. The key to keeping kids of all ages at a healthy weight is taking a whole-family approach. Klish WJ, et al. Childhood Obesity. Email Address.

READ TOO: Enoxaparin Dosing Obesity Prophylaxis For Meningitis

Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, healtb processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome. Child Obes. Lastly, family habits, whether they are sedentary or physically active, influence the child. Journal of Affective Disorders ;— There is mounting evidence that childhood obesity is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Schwarz SM.

McGraw Hill; In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. Request an Appointment Request a Second Opinion.

What are the causes of childhood obesity?

Am J Clin Nutr. In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. Decreased quality of life associated with obesity in school-aged children. Top of Page.

This in turn inevitably results in weight gain, as the amount conditinos children consumed exceeds the amount of energy burned. See tips to help children maintain a healthy weight. While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight. Body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in adolescents. Activity level One of the factors that is most significantly linked to obesity is a sedentary lifestyle.

  • These include serious conditions like type 2 diabeteshigh blood pressureand high cholesterol — all once considered adult diseases.

  • Choose whole grain foods, such as brown rice and whole wheat bread. We offer helpful tips that include what to eat, foods to avoid, common misconceptions and more.

  • The doctor also may order blood tests to look for some of the medical problems associated with obesity. Exercise and Physical Activity Many kids don't get enough physical activity.

  • National Health Statistics Reports; No. Overweight for Life Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become overweight or obese adults.

  • Eating-disordered behaviors, body fat, and psychopathology in overweight and normal-weight children. Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade.

Ages 1 to 5: Start good habits early. Childhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. Obesity during childhood can harm the body in a variety of ways. Exercise and Physical Activity Many kids don't get enough physical activity.

Eating disorder traits in obese children and adolescents. Chlidren factors Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity. Sweet Drinks and Obesity Sweetened drinks are high in calories and contribute to obesity. Read on. Childhood Obesity and Screen Time Screen time, which includes watching TV, playing video games and using computers, makes children less active and more obese.

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Most US children attend school for relatwd least 6 hours a day and consume as much as half of their daily calories at school. Psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity: A review of the past 10 years. Learn more about health problems associated with childhood obesity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent website. Although most of the physical health conditions associated with childhood obesity are preventable and can disappear when a child or adolescent reaches a healthy weight, some continue to have negative consequences throughout adulthood. Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain.

Contact the Optimal Weight for Life Program Consuming large portions, in addition to frequent snacking on highly caloric foods, contribute to an excessive caloric intake. Daily schedules are so busy that there's little time to make healthier meals or to squeeze in some exercise. Obesity occurs when a child is significantly over the ideal weight for her height. These include serious conditions like type 2 diabeteshigh blood pressureand high cholesterol — all once considered adult diseases. Childhood obesity: Evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice — Part two.

Childhood obesity: Evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice — Part one. Dietary factors have been studied extensively for its possible contributions to the rising rates of obesity. Fax And kids who have a TV in the bedroom also are more likely to be overweight.

Facts about prevention

Obesity in adulthood leads to. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. References 1.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, coonditions they may seek food as a comfort. As many as 1 in 4 US students has a chronic health condition such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy. The implementation of healthy eating practices and adequate exercise regimes are essential in the prevention and control of childhood obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. Promote healthy foods and beverages—for example, by pricing them lower than less healthy items. Learn to read food nutrition labels and use them, keep the number of portions you are really eating in mind.

Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Pollock NK. In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. Overweight or obese children:.

Overweight for Life

Being overweight increases a child's risk for a number of diseases and conditions, including:. Kapil U, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity is a complex health issue.

Registration is always open for the Generation Health program. Over a long period of time, this can lead to heart failure. The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well. The relation between eating- and weight-related disturbances and depression in adolescence: A review. Our tips can make it a fun, family activity that helps your child achieve their goals.

  • If you're worried, take your child or teen to see the doctor. Kids who are unhappy with their weight can be at risk for: unhealthy dieting and eating disorders depression substance abuse How Are Overweight and Obesity Defined?

  • Our tips can make it a fun, family activity that helps your child achieve their goals. Sleep is increasingly recognized as a component of good health.

  • Klish WJ, et al. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your child's doctor or other health care provider.

  • What children learn at home about eating healthy, exercising and making the right nutritional choices will eventually spill over into other aspects of their life.

  • As many as 1 in 4 US students has a chronic health condition such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy.

In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. The Centers for Health conditions related to obesity in children Control and Prevention estimate that 17 percent of 2- to year-old American children are obese, as measured by their body mass index BMI percentile. High Blood Pressure — Overweight children are more likely to have high blood pressure that can strain the heart. Patient Education A-Z. Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity. Connect with Boston Children's Hospital.

Furthermore, eating out or watching TV while eating is associated with a higher intake of fat. E-mail: moc. Family factors Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity. Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

Metabolic Syndrome

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. Not getting enough physical activity and spending too much time on sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices can lead to weight gain. A study by conducted by Williams et al. Screen time, which includes watching TV, playing video games and using computers, makes children less active and more obese. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.

Obesity in Indian children: Time trends and relationship with hypertension. Some examples of CDC-recommended actions to improve nutrition in schools are:. The relation between eating- and weight-related disturbances and depression in adolescence: A review. Thus, instilling some responsibility on the parents and informing them that controlled food preparation, diet control, and family participation in physical activities will all assist in the treatment and control of obesity in their children. Although there is no simple solution, a nutritious diet and regular physical activity can help prevent obesity. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Most US children attend school for at least 6 hours a day and consume as much as half of their daily calories at school.

This increase in tension could lead to long-term cardiovascular problems. The types of food available in the house and the food preferences of family members can influence the foods that children eat. A combination of primary and secondary prevention is necessary to achieve the best results. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon.

How common is childhood obesity?

Overview Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. But genetic and hormonal factors might play a role as well. Make healthy eating and exercise a family affair. Being overweight increases a child's risk for a number of diseases and conditions, including: Asthma — A large number of children who are overweight have asthma.

Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. It is an extremely difficult cycle to break. Obes Rev. Childhood Obesity and Screen Time Screen time, which includes watching TV, playing video games and using computers, makes children less active and more obese.

It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes children Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. Much of what we eat is quick and easy — from fat-filled fast food to processed and prepackaged meals. As a result of obesity it is possible that for the first time in history our children may have a shorter lifespan than their parents. Medical consequences Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions. Being overweight increases a child's risk for a number of diseases and conditions, including:.

More on this topic for:

Plus, modern life is sedentary. Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website.

Natl Med J India. For example, an average cheeseburger with and order of fries can overweight obese children as much as 1, calories and 30 or more grams of fat. Childhood obesity. Excess weight and obesity in children can generate low self-esteem, as we have already seen, and push the child towards anorexia or bulimia in a desperate attempt to lose weight. Efficacy of US paediatric obesity primary care guidelines: two randomized trials. Public health interventions for addressing childhood overweight: analysis of the business case.

READ TOO: Mental Health Issues Obesity

Obesity can affect all aspects of children rflated adolescents including but not limited to their obesity health and cardiovascular health and also their overall physical health. School-based health education strategies for the improvement of body image and prevention of eating problems: An overview of safe and successful interventions. National Health Statistics Reports; No. Failure to take appropriate actions could lead to serious public health consequences. Introduction Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States, affecting the lives of millions of people.

For this reason, doctors usually recommend a healthy and balanced diet for weight loss, as well as an exercise plan. Ghosh A. Department of Health and Children. Obesogens are a broad class of chemicals that disrupt metabolism.

Introduction

When children lose weight — heealth modest amounts of weight — it can reverse the negative effects of metabolic syndrome. Body mass index and incident type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young adults: a retrospective cohort study. Asthma and obesity in children are independently associated with airway Dysanapsis. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Media effects have been found for adolescent aggression and smoking and formation of unrealistic body ideals. Read our tips, which include using rewards and more. Examples of moderate intensity conritions are walking health conditions related to obesity in children minute mile, or weeding and hoeing a garden. An international group of researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis of many suspected environmental obesogens. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child. Am J Clin Nutr. When children lose weight — even modest amounts of weight — it can reverse the negative effects of metabolic syndrome.

About childhood obesity. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Offer healthy foods and beverages at t celebrations and events and only nonfood items as rewards. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • Encourage them to make healthy choices when outside the home and to be active every day. If kids are satisfied, don't force them to keep eating.

  • Any tobacco use among young people—whether burned, electronic, or smokeless—is unsafe because nicotine is addictive and can harm the developing brain.

  • Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents.

  • Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass muscle and bone and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children.

Read more. Take them along when you go grocery shopping. Regulation of marketing for unhealthy foods is recommended, as is media advocacy to promote healthy eating. Text Book of Public health and Community Medicine. As a result of obesity it is possible that for the first time in history our children may have a shorter lifespan than their parents Childhood overweight and obesity has both immediate and long-term health outcomes. Gupta RK. And children normally carry different amounts of body fat at the various stages of development.

Risk factors for obesity in childhood are still somewhat uncertain, and evidence-based research for preventative strategies is lacking. Causes of Childhood Obesity It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated hfalth the t adopted and the dietary intake preferences. Media effects have been found for adolescent aggression and smoking and formation of unrealistic body ideals. As proposed by the National Taskforce on Obesityfiscal policies such as taxing unhealthy options, providing incentives for the distribution of inexpensive healthy food, and investing in convenient recreational facilities or the esthetic quality of neighborhoods can enhance healthy eating and physical activity. J Am Coll Cardiol. Ensuring that students have the health services they need to manage their chronic conditions while at school is important in helping them stay healthy and ready to learn. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans external icon recommends children aged 6 — 17 years do at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day.

Introduction

Childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Glob Pediatr Health. Two randomized control trials of families were conducted from November to Septemberand they studied the efficacy of US pediatric obesity treatment guidelines in children aged 4 to 9 years with a standardized BMI ZBMI greater than the 85 percentile.

Don't eat obesity that are high in "energy density," or that have a lot of calories in a small amount of food. Obesity in children. Ih Calories To maintain a healthy weight, some children need to decrease the number of calories consumed and increase the number of calories burned. Children should have 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week. Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, by sex and race and Hispanic origin: the United States, In: Bhalwar RJ, editor. Obesity: The policy challenges: The report of the national taskforce on obesity.

Body fatness and risk for elevated blood-pressure, total cholesterol, and serum-lipoprotein ratios in children and adolescents. Grant recipients in the NIEHS Obesity and Diabetes program study related environmental topics and exposures during different life stages. Although there are treatment options for overweight children, prevention is the key to combating the childhood obesity epidemic. Defining obesity requires a suitable measurement of body fat and an appropriate cutoff range. While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight. A healthy diet follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon.

Read more. Parental feeding style is also significant. Helping Your Child Be a Healthy Weight The best way to help an overweight child is by focusing on their health and not their weight. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. Overview Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents.

However, the distance, convenience, weather, scanty sidewalks, and anxiety about crimes against children could all contribute to this difference. Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Patient Education A-Z. Children should have 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week. Prevention and Control There are two primary components to the prevention and control of childhood obesity.

The body mass index BMIwhich provides a guideline of weight in related obesity to height, is the accepted measure on overweight and obesity. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your child's doctor or other health care provider. This can result in a loss of self-esteem and an increased risk of depression and anxiety. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Overeating among adolescents: Prevalence and associations with weight-related characteristics and psychological health. While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight.

Daily schedules are so busy that there's little time relayed make healthier meals or to squeeze in some exercise. Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. Overweight or obese children:. Childhood obesity can also lead to poor self-esteem and depression.

Patrick H, Nicklas T. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient. School-aged boys Journal of Affective Disorders ;—

Adults Many of the strategies that produce successful weight cildren and maintenance help prevent obesity. Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. The role of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY in the development of obesity via gut-brain axis. The good news is that the health problems associated with metabolic syndrome respond well to diet and exercise.

Lifestyle interventions including nutrition, exercise, and supplements for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. Figure 3. Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Pollock NK. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years.

  • Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity conditioms a role in preventing excess weight gain. It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences.

  • This elegant biological system is subject to disruption by a toxic obesogenic environment, leading to syndromes such as leptin and insulin resistance, and ultimately further exposing individuals who are obese to further weight gain and type 2 diabetes mellitus. While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight.

  • We offer helpful tips that include what to eat, foods to avoid, common misconceptions and more.

Thus, instilling some responsibility on the parents and informing them that controlled food preparation, diet control, and family participation in physical activities conditlons all assist in the treatment and control of obesity in their children. Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Potential Risk Factors of Childhood Obesity. References 1. Conflict of Interest: None declared. On This Page. Childhood obesity has also been found to negatively affect school performance.

Research indicates taste, followed by hunger and price, is the most important factor in adolescents snack choices. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like oobesity and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Figure 3. Indian J Community Med. While a complete picture of all the risk factors associated with obesity remains elusive, the combination of diet, exercise, physiological factors, and psychological factors is important in the control and prevention of childhood obesity; thus, all researchers agree that prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current problem. Karnik S, Kanekar A. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years.

Obesity also can make asthma symptoms worse or lead kids to develop asthma. Make healthy eating and exercise a family affair. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study. Obesity in Indian children: Time trends and relationship with hypertension. The key to keeping kids of all ages at a healthy weight is taking a whole-family approach. It also recommends limiting foods and beverages with added sugars, solid fats, or sodium.

Reduce "screen" time in front of the television and computer to less than 1 to 2 hours daily. Consequences of childhood obesity Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. Pharmacol Ther. Trouble Sleeping — Children who are overweight are at risk for obstructive sleep apneawhich is a serious, potentially life-threatening breathing disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep.

  • This can help determine if your child's weight is in an unhealthy range.

  • Children who have obesity are at higher risk of obesity as adults.

  • Facts and Figures on Childhood Obesity.

  • Its increase in prevalence has provoked widespread research efforts to identify the factors that contributed to these changes. Although there is no simple solution, a nutritious diet and regular physical activity can help prevent obesity.

Research which indicates the number of hours children spend watching TV correlates with their consumption of health conditions related to obesity in children most advertised goods, heakth sweetened cereals, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks. Pediatr Obes. A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. JL: Contributed to the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Behaviors that influence excess weight gain include eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages, medication use and sleep routines. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies.

Child Obes. This increase in tension could lead to long-term cardiovascular problems. Since the combination health conditions related to obesity in children diet, exercise, and physiological and psychological factors are all important factors in the control and prevention of childhood obesity, primary prevention methods should be aimed at educating the child and family and encouraging appropriate diet and exercise from a young age through adulthood while secondary prevention should be targeted at lessening the effect of childhood obesity by preventing the child from continuing unhealthy habits and obesity into adulthood. In fact, children with it experience hypertension, low good cholesterol, high triglycerides, and even glucose intolerance. A study by conducted by Williams et al. Obesity can affect all aspects of the children including their psychological as well as cardiovascular health; also, their overall physical health is affected.

Overweight for Life

Childhood Obesity and Screen Time Screen time, which includes watching TV, playing video games and using computers, makes children less active and more obese. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. Share on: Facebook Twitter.

  • Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient.

  • The number of children with obesity in the United States has increased substantially over the years; due to its public health significance, the increasing trends need to be closely monitored. Feeling fat rather than being fat may be associated with psychological well-being in young Dutch adolescents.

  • Dietary factors have been studied extensively for its possible contributions to the rising rates of obesity. Eating disorder traits in obese children and adolescents.

  • Ensuring that students have the health services they need to manage their chronic conditions while at school is important in helping them stay healthy and ready to learn. Preventing childhood obesity: tips for parents.

Childhood obesity has been linked to conditins medical conditions. Although methods such as densitometry can be used in research practice, they are not feasible for clinical settings. This content does not have an English version. Childhood obesity: Evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice — Part two. Read our tips, which include using rewards and more. Longitudinal trends in obesity in the United States from adolescence to the third decade of life.

Any child under 2 who falls at or above cinditions 95th percentile may be considered overweight. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon. Kids may rebel and overeat forbidden foods outside the home or sneak them in on their own. Diet and Lifestyle Much of what we eat is quick and easy — from fat-filled fast food to processed and prepackaged meals. Recommendations by Age Additional recommendations for kids of all ages: Birth to age 1: Besides its many health benefits, breastfeeding may help prevent excessive weight gain. Pollock NK.

Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an childeen by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. Government and social policies could also potentially promote healthy behavior.

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