Obesity

High blood pressure related to obesity and diabetes – Type 2 Diabetes and High Blood Pressure: What’s the Connection?

The structural changes inside of the kidney, secondary to obesity, are important as the fat deposit around the kidneys, together with increased abdominal pressure secondary to central obesity, have been suggested as an additional cause of renal sodium reabsorption disorder. With high blood pressure, the arteries may have an increased resistance against the flow of blood, causing the heart to pump harder to circulate the blood.

The link between diabetes and high blood pressure Individuals with diabetes either do not have sufficient insulin to process glucose or have insulin that do not work effectively. Inhibition of Na,K-ATPase and sodium pump by protein kinase C regulators sphingosine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and oleic acid. Foot problems can occur if you have type 2 diabetes. This makes it a major risk factor for stroke and dementia. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.

  • Is vaping better than smoking, or worse? Matsuzawa Y.

  • High blood pressure is twice as likely to strike a person with diabetes than a person without diabetes. Ischemic heart disease High blood pressure can cause ischemic heart disease, which is usually the result of a hardening of the arteries, otherwise known as coronary heart disease.

  • Mirowsky J, Ross CE.

1. Introduction

In obese individuals, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood throughout the body, as a result of fatty substances accumulated in the arteries. Obesity can happen for many different reasons, pressure related as consuming too many calories, leading a sedentary lifestyle and getting insufficient sleep. A survey by the American Diabetes Association ADA found that fewer than half of people at risk for heart disease or type 2 diabetes reported discussing biomarkers, including blood pressurewith their care providers. Obesity-related hypertension is commonly associated with further elements of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.

Ross R. Consequently, glucose cannot enter the cells to provide oesity, and instead accumulates in the bloodstream. J Am Soc Nephrol. When you are resistant to insulin, your body is unable to convert the glucose into energy and you end up with a persistently high blood glucose level. Dr Daniel Wai, endocrinologist, talks about the ways to avoid it from the latest research. Yet, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women.

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Find out why blood pressure guidelines have recently changed in the United States, and what it means for you. Another significant cause of the shift of pressure natriuresis towards higher blood pressure levels in obesity is the possibility of alterations in intrarenal forces caused by histological changes in the renal medulla that may compress the loops of Henle and vasa recta The Brain Connection Hypertension in midlife could affect late-life thinking skills. In this article. The number on the top, the systolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when the heart contracts and is pumping the blood through the body. Exp Ther Med.

Good weight and measure are heaven's treasure

Dr Ooi Yau Wei explains the possible causes of chest pain and how to tell if the pain is heart-related. J Funct Foods. Athlete or not, it is important to understand its possible causes.

  • Dr Ooi Yau Wei explains the possible causes of chest pain and how to tell if the pain is heart-related.

  • Your morning cup does way more than boost your energy. Last updated on 19 October Obesity significantly increases your risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, and these conditions are also intimately intertwined with heart disease.

  • J Hypertens. The percentage of people with obesity in the United States is increasing and in a survey from tothe percentage of people with obesity in the United States was

  • The reduction of endothelial function is mainly the result of a decrease in nitric oxide NO related to an increase in oxidative stress or the result from pro-inflammatory cytokines This results in narrowed coronary arteries and reduces blood flow to your heart muscle.

  • The good news is that not all chest pain signals a heart problem.

Sometimes known as broken heart syndrome, obesity and diabetes may be triggered by episodes of grief, anger or fear. The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in our bodies, yet Achilles tendonitis is one of the most common sports injuries for the ankle. But before you hit Google Maps to plan for a ride around your neighbourhood, it is important to know your risks and take a few precautions. More and more people are starting to develop dementia earlier in life. Think globally, act globally. BMI is highly correlated with direct measures of body fat in most populations.

Delaney has successfully influenced numerous patients on changing their lifestyles and to pursue healthier habits. MitraClip can be performed to treat this condition without the need for open-heart surgery. Tylicki L, Rutkowski B. Furthermore, new onset diabetes increases the cardiovascular risk. Hypertension ; 46 : — Clinics Sao Paulo ; 63 — She is a member of the Oregon Medical Association, which advocates and supports legislation on obesity issues.

Introduction

Circulation ; : — J Am Med Assoc. To calculate your ideal weight, health professionals have suggested using your body mass index BMI as a rough indicator. Excessive exercise may have negative effects on your heart and overall health.

  • As a sport, cycling is affordable, fun and an easy exercise to weave into your busy schedule. These simple changes to your habits can do wonders for your heart.

  • High blood pressure and heart diseases are closely interlinked, yet many of us are unaware of this fact. Television viewing, physical inactivity and obesity.

  • As we stay home more, managing screen time for kids can be challenging. The burden of adult hypertension in the United States to a rising tide.

Obestiy organs feeling the brunt of obesity, include heart 37liver diabeteskidney 39lungs 40colon 41skin 42vessels 43 and brain These include:. Dr Poh Choo Hean explains what may be causing your pain. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. China Find articles by Hong-Yun Ruan. Consistently, adipose tissues, particularly those of abdominal fat may specifically exert systemic effects through the secretion of a variety of hormones and cytokines, leading to obese-associated glomerulopathy Renal injury in the extremely obese patients with normal renal function.

READ TOO: Morbidly Obese Fat

Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases and illnesses. Accordingly, the quantity of fat in a person's diet may have greater impact on weight than the number of calories it contains. Watch out for these habits among teenagers that may increase their risk of developing heart disease. The surprising kidney-fluid mechanism for pressure control - its infinite gain. A fast, irregular heart beat can be triggered by anxiety or emotional stress, but it may also be a symptom of a condition atrial fibrillation.

Hhigh disease can lead to heart failure and an irregular heartbeat in people who have diabetes but do not have CHD. But why? TAVI is a minimally invasive procedure that offers hope to patients too old or too ill for conventional aortic valve replacement operations. The structural changes inside of the kidney, secondary to obesity, are important as the fat deposit around the kidneys, together with increased abdominal pressure secondary to central obesity, have been suggested as an additional cause of renal sodium reabsorption disorder.

Cardiologist Dr Nandakumar Ramasami talks about what cholesterol is, and the latest developments in managing cholesterol levels. Relationship between hepatic morphology and clinical and biochemical findings in morbidly obese patients. It includes a group of disorders, such as heart failure, ischemic heart disease and left ventricular hypertrophy excessive thickening of the heart muscle. Louis Yap, dietitian at Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital, shares the nutrients you need during pregnancy to help your baby develop healthily.

How obesity increases your risk for type 2 diabetes

Nephrol Dial Transplant. Exercise can also help you gain better control of your blood sugar levels. Complications arising from diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Disease often result in patients losing a limb, but it does not have to be that way. Watch out for these habits among teenagers that may increase their risk of developing heart disease.

Obesity can result in serious health issues that are potentially life threatening, including hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, increased risk for coronary disease, increased unexplained heart failure, hyperlipidemia, infertility, higher prevalence of colon, prostate, endometrial, and breast cancer 67. Here are some fuss-free, dietitian-approved snack ideas for your kids. Gallagher S. Based on population studies, risk estimates indicate that at least two-thirds of the prevalence of hypertension can be directly attributed to obesity [ 4 ]. Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Earlier studies attributed the link between obesity and hypertension primarily to haemodynamic factors. An overview of the effect of weight loss on cardiovascular autonomic function.

Is your mother neglecting her own health as she ages? In addition, the pharmacological blockade of adrenergic activity in experimental models markedly decreased the rise related blood pressure in dogs fed a high-fat diet Many people feel guilty for eating too much, or even dread stepping on the scales after the holidays. People who have just lost somebody dear to them often describe the feeling as heartbreaking. It can be worrying to find out you have a kidney cyst, especially as the condition does not always come with symptoms. Find out why blood pressure guidelines have recently changed in the United States, and what it means for you. The impact of obesity on pulmonary function in adult women.

Obesity vs overweight

Bariatric surgery may be right for you if you are morbidly obese or if you suffer from a metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Find out more. Consequently, glucose cannot enter the cells to provide energy, and instead accumulates in the bloodstream. Every minute counts when it comes to recovering from a stroke.

N Engl J Med. The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in our bodies, yet Achilles tendonitis is one of the most common sports injuries for the ankle. Curr Pharm Des ; 10 : — Harvard Professor. Know the signs so you can seek help earlier. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity.

National Center for Health Statistics, Obesity, metabolism, and the sympathetic nervous system. Medically reviewed by Judith Marcin, M. J Atheroscler Thromb. Note that heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped.

Email alerts Article activity alert. Follow us Orchard Novena. Smokers are up to 3 times more likely to suffer heart attacks. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients. You have heard time and again that eating whole grains is the healthy way to go. Obesity is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative impact on their health.

Media Coverage

Know the top 5 bacteria responsible for causing it. Depending on the balance between the fractions of saturated and bloodd fatty acids, fat contained in the blood circulation can immediately affect certain organs such as liver and kidney, concomitantly with devastating local actions inside of the vessels through the formation of atherosclerosis 24an infringement of medium and large arteries due to a buildup of fat inside of the arterial wall, termed visceral fat. Two numbers are used to measure blood pressure. Here, we explain all the facts you need to know about heart attacks, as well as the symptoms to look out for — from the obvious eg. Diets that are extremely rich in carbohydrates and high doses of alcohol promote the increase of another lipid component present in the blood, that of triglycerides, which constitures an additional risk factor of the formation of atherosclerosis

  • N Engl J Med ; : — Pathophysiology and treatment of obesity hypertension.

  • For your peace of mind, find out more about heart health or talk to one of our heart specialists today.

  • It is clear that obesity-related hypertension is a multifactorial disorder. Does obesity make a difference?

  • Trends Neurosci. Read on to find out the best foods to eat after gall bladder surgery.

  • Other factors favoring the formation of atherosclerosis include physical inactivity, smoking, stress, inflammation and certain bacteria Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity.

Dr Kelvin Thia explains. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension. The keto diet yo to be one of the most popular weight loss diets. The value of BMI is now used to diagnose the stage of overweight or obesity thereby fixing at The surprising kidney-fluid mechanism for pressure control - its infinite gain.

  • The adverse impact of newly diagnosed diabetes is similar to that of known diabetes. There are compelling arguments for the concept that metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity not only play an important role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but also contribute to different types of renal injury.

  • Obesity is a major risk for essential hypertension, diabetes and other morbidity that contribute to the development of kidney disease because it mainly increases tubular reabsorption to impair pressure natriuresis and cause volume expansion via the activation of the SNS and the RAS. Obesity-initiated metabolic syndrome and the kidney: A recipe for chronic kidney disease?

  • Folkman, Judah. Obesity and in particular central obesity have been consistently associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk.

  • Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls.

  • Angiotensinogen production serves as a cause and effect of adipocyte hypertrophy and leads to elevation of blood pressure through the action of AngII, which induces systematic vasoconstriction, direct sodium and water retention and increased aldosterone production Your sporting preference can say a lot about your personality.

How to evaluate phosphate control in patients on dialysis. Indicators for risk of hypertension include obesity, abdominal obesity and weight gain. The estimation for the current year is approximately 2. Obesity and kidney disease. In fact, the leading cause of death by far among diabetics is heart disease.

Louis K. Heart attack symptoms in women are often 'silent' but the consequences of not noticing them can be life threatening. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of angiotensinogen decreases plasma angiotensinogen concentration and systolic blood pressure in mice. Strumpf E. Dr Andrew Dutton explains why. Minimally Invasive Surgery. Your morning cup does way more than boost your energy.

1. Introduction

This means that the heart muscle is unable to get enough blood as the pathway is blocked. This is different from being overweight, where the high blood pressure related to obesity and diabetes may come from muscle, bone, fat or body water. These include: Keeping your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol under control Quit smoking Follow a healthy eating plan Engage physical activity regularly Maintain a healthy weight Manage stress well Get enough sleep Coronary heart disease CHD In CHD, a fatty substance builds up inside the coronary arteries that supply your heart with oxygen-rich blood.

Received Dec 11; Accepted Aug CHD can also lead to heart failure by weakening the heart muscle over time. Prim Care. Bariatric surgery may be right for you if you are morbidly obese or if you suffer from a metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: Results from a cohort. Abstract The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Do you know what germs are lurking in your home, and are you doing enough to protect yourself from contamination? Symptoms may include: Headache Dizziness Blurred vision The symptoms of high blood pressure may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Our doctors debunk 5 commonly believed myths about e-cigarettes.

The treatment of obesity itself requires guidelines suggesting hihg lifestyle modifications aiming to reduce body weight, thereby consuming a low-caloric diet with a total of —1, or —1, calories for men or women, respectively. Here are a few suggestions. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: An emerging epidemic. Is watching the big game giving you too much stress and excitement?

An active lifestyle may pressrue guarantee your immunity to heart attacks. Allergies are at best annoying, and at worst life-threatening. Apart from hypertension, abdominal adiposity has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, sleep apnoea, stroke and congestive heart failure [ 2 ]. Curr Diabetes Rev. J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14 : — But is it heart-friendly and is it sustainable?

Learn how to prevent them and hlgh to see a doctor. Life JS. O'Connor DW. Conclusion Obesity is a major risk for essential hypertension, diabetes and other morbidity that contribute to the development of kidney disease because it mainly increases tubular reabsorption to impair pressure natriuresis and cause volume expansion via the activation of the SNS and the RAS. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

Evidence shows that stress is a risk factor for heart disease, but how exactly relatev stress affect your heart? Dr Ong Hean Yee, cardiologist, shares 8 common scans your doctor may perform to scope out your heart health. Dr Andrew Dutton explains why. Similar trends are likely to occur in other countries.

Ischemic heart disease High blood pressure higy cause ischemic heart disease, which is usually the result of a hardening of the arteries, otherwise known as coronary heart disease. Individuals with diabetes dr ananya mandal obesity help do not have sufficient insulin to process glucose or have insulin that do not work effectively. Renal injury in the extremely obese patients with normal renal function. Dr Lisa Wong, gynaecologist, explains how minimally invasive surgery improves treatment of gynaecological cancers. Advance article alerts. Submit a comment. Corinna Cornejo knows that living with type 2 diabetes can be a roller coaster.

READ TOO: Lipotoxicity In The Pathogenesis Of Obesity Dependent Niddm Diagnosis

If lbood BMI is 30 or above, you are considered obese. J Pediatr. Dr Daniel Wai, endocrinologist, talks about the ways to avoid it from the latest research. Cardiologist Dr Lim Yean Teng talks us through the procedure and how it prevents heart disease. Many of us wear shoes that are completely wrong for our feet.

Add comment Close comment form modal. Hypertension ; 43 : — The number of nephrons is reduced in patients with primary hypertension [ 23 ]. Folkman, Judah. Hyattsville, MD.

  • But what causes it? Here are a few suggestions.

  • What Is Diabetic Heart Disease?

  • Your heart rate could give you helpful information about your current health and clue you in on potential health problems. Is your mother neglecting her own health as she ages?

  • Many people feel guilty for eating too much, or even dread stepping on the scales after the holidays. Impact of obesity in intima media thickness of carotid arteries.

  • But what is the assumption behind this theory, and is it valid? What are the signs of an unhealthy heart?

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. This is different from being overweight, disbetes the weight may come from muscle, bone, fat or body water. Sign In or Create an Account. Here are 9 tasty dietitian-approved snacks that you can have on hand to quell your hunger pangs, preventing you from reaching out for that unhealthy snack. No

When is it high blood obesiy Body mass index and the risk of development of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort. Here are 6 dietitian tips for a sustainable healthy lifestyle. Is a heart attack the same as a heart failure? Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but this requires that obesity is combined with hypertension.

What is high blood pressure?

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Blood with high glucose levels travels through the body and can cause harm to the blood vessels, making them targets for hardening, called atherosclerosis.

National Center for Health Statistics, Body mass index and the risk of development of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort. Other factors favoring the formation of atherosclerosis include physical inactivity, smoking, stress, inflammation and certain bacteria Curr Pharm Des.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Furthermore, new onset diabetes increases the cardiovascular risk. Indicators for risk of hypertension include obesity, abdominal obesity and weight gain. With ageing comes changes to your body, mind and health — but optimising your health and happiness in your later years may be as simple as adopting these 7 habits. Obstructive sleep apnoea may importantly contribute to sympathetic activation in obesity. The Framingham Heart Study. Obesity: MedlinePlus.

Dr Paul Chiam, cardiologist at Mount Elizabeth Hospital, discusses the tests used to screen for heart disease. Excessive exercise may have negative effects on your heart and overall health. The physiology of body weight regulation: Relevance to the etiology of obesity in children.

Not every fruit qualifies. Read our guide to understand more about IBS, and how you can manage it for a happy and healthy life. Various kinds of jobs create different types of stress, and whether the stress becomes harmful depends on the individual. Clin Chim Acta. Obesity, proteinuria and progression of renal failure. Moreover, excess weight puts […].

Mandal, M. Each time bllood heart beats, it is pumping blood into these arteries, resulting in the highest blood pressure when the heart contracts and is pumping the blood. Diabetic cardiomyopathy Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a disease that damages the structure and function of the heart. But maintaining a healthy heart can help to save your life. Specialists explain 5 common illnesses in schoolchildren and how to avoid them.

Obesity vs overweight

However, taking excess amount of protein can be dibetes no use and cause damage to your body. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. What should you do in the event of a heart attack? Talk to your insurance agent and find out how to get yourself covered.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Any heart surgery comes with risks, thus the transcatheter tk valve implantation TAVI to improve the treatment of deadly heart diseases has been a welcomed effort. Sometimes known as broken heart syndrome, it may be triggered by episodes of grief, anger or fear. China Find articles by Xue-Feng Zong. Atherosclerosis - an inflammatory disease. While childbearing is perhaps the most fascinating feat of the female body, there are plenty of other things that make the female body quite remarkable.

Is vaping better than smoking, or worse? Those with pre-existing health conditions face a eiabetes risk of complications from the COVID novel coronavirus. Why is it that one person can eat hundreds of calories and stay the same weight, while another person can eat the same and gain more? Stomach cancer is the 4th most common cancer worldwide.

Mechanisms of abnormal renal sodium handling in obesity hypertension. Kidney Int. Cardiol Rev. Television viewing, physical inactivity and obesity. Find out more.

High blood pressure related to obesity and diabetes University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Hypertension high blood pressure refers to the pressure that blood applies to the inner walls of the arteries. Major organs feeling the brunt of obesity, include heart 37ot 38kidney 39lungs 40colon 41skin 42vessels 43 and brain Research suggests that people who are obese are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who are not. The clustering of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome might have important implications for prevention, particularly with regard to whether interventions targeted at visceral obesity would have beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal morbidity. Talk to your insurance agent and find out how to get yourself covered.

  • Next Cholesterol — What is it?

  • Inhibition of Na,K-ATPase and sodium pump by protein kinase C regulators sphingosine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and oleic acid. Women's hearts are different from men's hearts, and require special attention.

  • This is a phenomenon that has been rearing its head much more in recent years.

  • J Biol Chem. The link between high blood pressure and heart disease Various heart disorders may occur when the heart consistently works under increased pressure.

Wong LK. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension. Hypertension, ; 32 In addition to lowering blood pressure, physical activity can strengthen the heart muscle. J Am Soc Nephrol. Hypertensive heart disease is the number 1 cause of death associated with high blood pressure.

References Obesity - Topic Overview. Many patients with liver disease often may not discover it until it is too late. A stroke can be life-changing, but rehabilitation can help you regain your abilities and skills during recovery. Dr Tan Yau Min clarifies what you need to know. The keto diet continues to be one of the most popular weight loss diets.

The age-old adage — laughter is the best medicine — may not be accurate after all. China, E-mail: moc. Furthermore, high pressuure of plasma renin activity, plasma AngII and aldosterone values were observed in human obesity 59 in which a presynaptic potentiating high blood pressure related to obesity and diabetes was observed on the sympathetic neurotransmission in patients under sodium restriction 60likely through hypothetical mechanisms including impaired function of baroreceptors sensitivity and increased levels of circulating free-fatty acids, AngII, insulin and leptin The treatment of obesity itself requires guidelines suggesting deep lifestyle modifications aiming to reduce body weight, thereby consuming a low-caloric diet with a total of —1, or —1, calories for men or women, respectively. How obesity increases your risk for type 2 diabetes People who are obese have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is also known as insulin-resistant or adult-onset diabetes.

J Am Coll Health. Smokers are up to 3 times more likely to suffer eiabetes attacks. What should you do in the event of a heart attack? PLoS Med. How obesity increases your risk of high blood pressure In obese individuals, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood throughout the body, as a result of fatty substances accumulated in the arteries.

The arterial dkabetes pressure controlling mechanism of diuresis and natriuresis according to the principle of infinite feedback gain seems to be raised near the higher blood pressure value in obese patients. Cancer Lett. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. What is arrhythmia?

How obesity increases your risk for type 2 diabetes

Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. In obese persons, cells of fat tissues have to process more nutrients than they diabetees manage. Find out how you can be kinder to your feet with your shoe choices. Obesity is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative impact on their health. If you have high blood pressure, it means that your blood is pumping through your heart and blood vessels with too much force.

Angiotensinogen, angiotensin Ang I and AngII are locally produced and at are simultaneously taken up by the cells, in which AngII receptors are overexpressed. Yes No. Circulation ; 97 : — Although we have been using these 2 words interchangeably, there is a subtle difference in their medical definitions. Elsevier;

New issue alert. Obesity can result in serious health issues that are potentially life threatening, including diabetfs, type II diabetes mellitus, increased risk for coronary disease, increased unexplained heart failure, obesity and diabetes, infertility, higher prevalence of colon, prostate, endometrial, and breast cancer 67. Whether weight loss, induced by either lifestyle changes or pharmacotherapy, is also associated with a reduced number of cardiovascular events remains to be determined. A pioneering surgery for heart disease is proving quicker and safer than conventional alternatives. In the spirit of Halloween and sugary treats, we look at how you can trick your brain into eating healthily to improve your gut health.

Excessive exercise may have negative effects on your heart and overall health. Furthermore, high levels of plasma renin activity, plasma AngII and aldosterone values were observed in human obesity relatex in which a presynaptic potentiating effect was observed on the sympathetic neurotransmission in patients under sodium restriction 60likely through hypothetical mechanisms including impaired function of baroreceptors sensitivity and increased levels of circulating free-fatty acids, AngII, insulin and leptin Watch out for these habits among teenagers that may increase their risk of developing heart disease. Dr Ooi Yau Wei talks about how caffeine affects your health. But is it heart-friendly and is it sustainable? Trends Neurosci.

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