Obesity

Leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children – Relation of leptin to insulin resistance syndrome in children

BMI was calculated for groups as weight kg divided by height m squared [ 13 ]. The mean age of patients in case and control group was 9.

Am J Clin Nutr ; 53 : — Privacy Policy Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clam. Plasma glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase method with the use of a glucose analyzer YSI, Inc. Am J Clin Nutr. J Pediatr : 47 —

  • Moreover, although a direct association between breast-feeding and improved insulin sensitivity is unknown, breast-feeding should be promoted because it is involved in preventing obesity in children Sex 5.

  • Table 2 Body mass index and insulin level in obese and normal subgroup of cases on valproate. In a 1-year prospective study, Verrotti et al.

  • Insulin, unlike food intake, does not suppress ghrelin in human subjects.

  • Obesity is a major worldwide health problem.

Publication types

Leeptin, other factors besides adiposity, such as sex steroids, might play a role in this gender difference [ 21 ]. It has been experimentally shown that increase blood triglycerides concentrations, as well as decreased levels of HDL-C, can be secondary to IR; in fact, IR improved the hepatic synthesis and secretion of triglyceride-rich VLDL particles. Mol Cell Biol. E-mail: ri. Despite the favorable effects of liraglutide, such as improvement of BMI z score, body weight, FPG, HbA1c and fasting serum insulin observed, none was statistically significant, probably due to the short duration of the trial and small number of participants

Moreover, the subject population was different from ours, because it compared prepubertal children with adults. Resistance obesity has been experimentally shown that increase blood triglycerides concentrations, as well as decreased levels of HDL-C, can be secondary to IR; in fact, IR improved the hepatic ihsulin and secretion of triglyceride-rich VLDL particles. We also investigated the cross-sectional relations between dietary variables and average leptin concentration over the 8-mo experimental period, and we found that there was no relation between leptin and either energy intake or percentage of energy obtained from each macronutrient. Table 1. Does adult-onset diabetes mellitus begin in childhood? The mechanisms responsible for its different signs and symptoms are still unknown. The relevant association between IR and cardiovascular risk in the pediatric population is well known, especially in obese children 95 — 97even though further research is needed to clarify this association.

Association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome: evidence from a large sample of Chinese children and adolescents. Redistance, adequate data concerning the safety and long-term efficiency of drugs in patients with IR are children available yet. Pediatrics ; : — Our 1-year collaborative lifestyle intervention, led to improvements in BMI z-score and in most of the metabolic parameters particularly in the obese children. The most common surrogate markers are the fasting plasma insulin FPIthe homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index QUICKIwhich have been demonstrated to correlate favorably and have been validated in childhood with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp 30 ,

Publication types

In obese children and adolescents of any age, a resistahce association between IR and a higher prevalence of the components of the metabolic syndrome MS has been observed, therefore a higher cardiovascular risk is predicted in these subjects 4 12. The pathogenesis on the basis of this evident correlation is still not known exactly but several hypotheses have been considered. Percent suppression in ghrelin was not significantly different between the NW and OW children A recent study conducted by Arslanian et al. Nonetheless, we did examine such potential differences in our sample so that we could control for them in drawing conclusions about the relations of other variables to leptin concentrations.

  • Crit Ultrasound J.

  • Br J Nutr. Down syndrome DS, trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal abnormality affecting live-born infants.

  • The difference in composition of the stimulus OGTT vs. Discussion In this cross-sectional study of school-aged children, we found that obesity and leptin were independently associated with the insulin resistance syndrome.

  • In a community-based cohort from the Framingham Heart Study no relation between IR and incident atrial fibrillation AF has been observed Ghrelin levels increase before and decrease after meals, potentially playing a role in meal initiation and satiety in an inverse pattern to that of insulin.

Effects of sodium valproate in children obseity special reference to weight. Abstract Background Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The study was small in size, single center, cross sectional comparative study. Body mass index BMI was calculated, and serum insulin and leptin levels were measured in 45 consecutive patients and 45 controls.

Preterm birth and later insulin resistance: effects of birth weight and postnatal growth in a population based longitudinal study from birth into adult life. But few studies have reported the concomitant variations of these factors after a lifestyle intervention [ 711 — 13 ]. In addition, in contrast to other markers such as HOMA-IR, this index does not evaluate insulin concentration in regards to fasting glucose values. Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, but not lipid infusion, decreases circulating ghrelin levels in humans. Short- and long-term changes in serum leptin dieting obese women: effects of caloric restriction and weight loss. Growth and maturation during adolescence.

Background

Increased insulin levels were also proposed to be due to the direct action of VPA on beta resistance obesity of the pancreas. Serum insulin, leptin, and neuropeptide Y levels in epileptic children treated with valproate. Abstract Objective: Epigenetic alterations have been suggested to be associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders. The reason for increased risk of obesity in DS is unclear. Adipose-specific disruption of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 increases body weight and adiposity.

Subgroup analysis was done among obese and normal patients who were on VPA as shown in Table 2. Body fat itself is not necessarily a precise measure of health risk. Obesity in resistace and young people: a crisis in public health. Plasma thyrotropin bioactivity in Down syndrome children with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thirty six Egyptian children with Down syndrome were enrolled in this study, divided according to their body mass index BMI into 23 obese and13 non obese. Large sample size, studying other causes of DS and further genetic study are needed to prove the genetic role in this tendency for obesity in DS. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The aim of the work The current study was designed to clarify differences in some obesity- related hormones in a group of prepubertal Down syndrome children. Figure 1. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; E pilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of seizure. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Consequently, a contemporary increasing of the lfptin of IR and T2D occurs. J Clin Invest. However, more consistent data are needed to establish its real benefits and side effects on insulin-resistant adults and children Relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma leptin concentration in lean and obese men Diabetes 45 : — During the last decades several studies have defined several and well-characterized risk factors for IR including ethnicity, puberty, adipose tissue variant depots, polycystic ovary syndrome PCOSgene variants, family history of Diabetes or gestational diabetes, and fetal growth pattern during pregnancy.

Introduction

Cell Mol Neurobiol. Results: The lepyin BMI of the cases and control group was Abstract Introduction Leptin, a hormone released by the body to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, decreases fat storage in adipocytes. AKE participated in clinical diagnosis and recruiting of patients, shared in collection of data, drafting and reviewing the study. In the same study, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance was found to be seen in the overweight group.

Cambuli et al. J Clin Invest ; 99 : — 5. Childrne used a mixed-model analysis of variance ANOVA with subject as the random factor and group and time as fixed factors. Details of the physical training are provided elsewhere Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The main unchangeable risk factors for IR in children are the Caucasian ethnicity and puberty.

The study population consisted of 60 healthy prepubertal children, 7—12 yr of resisttance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 : — Race c. Search ADS. Methods Mol Biol. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents: dependence on body mass index, body fat mass, gender, pubertal stage, and testosterone J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 : —

Sodium VPA monotherapy may be associated with significant rise of BMI, hyperinsulinemia, and raised insulin resistance in children with epilepsy. Serum insulin, leptin, and neuropeptide Y levels in epileptic children treated with valproate. Furthermore it may help determine if an overweight child may have excess body fatness [ 39 ] and this group of children were not included in our study. Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study. A mean drug level of VPA was found to be in normal therapeutic range

The Validity of BMI as an indicator of body fatness and risk among children. Epilepsy Res. We excluded children who had children pubertal development according to Tanner and Whitehouse staging [ 14 ] to avoid hormonal changes induced by puberty. SY conducted and draft the study, participated in its design and coordination and shared in clinical diagnosis and recruiting of patients. Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study. Insulin antibody determination: theoretical and practical considerations.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusions: Insulin resistance syndrome in childhood, characterized by high insulln pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia, may be an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Version Serum insulin concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was suggested previously in small size study, 15 cases, including one prepubertal child with DS that increased HOMA-IR and high rate of glucose production indicated presence of peripheral and hepatic IR in adolescent with DS [ 22 ]. On clinical examination, weight, height, and Body mass index BMI were assessed. Cell Mol Neurobiol.

We excluded children who had started pubertal development according to Tanner and Whitehouse staging [ 14 ] to avoid hormonal changes induced by puberty. External link. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. IR is the most common metabolic alteration related to obesity [ 20 ]. Body fat itself is not necessarily a precise measure of health risk. Subjects: One hundred and six adolescents were recruited and classified according to body mass index and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index.

However, corticosteroids or growth hormone therapy and genetic diseases may affect insulin sensitivity lifelong. Adiponectin and protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is well known that obesity is associated with comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance [ 2023 ] and with early indication of atherosclerosis [ 2425 ]. Ghrelin and leptin levels in obese adolescents. J Appl Physiol ; 83 : 5 —

Hypothyroidism and nemaline myopathy in an adult. Objective: Leptin, lpetin adipose tissue-derived product of the obesity OB gene, is an important regulator of energy metabolism and may be associated with the occurrence of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans. Eurpean Journal of Endocrinology. Tech publisher; In: Clinical perspectives in the management of Down syndrome.

Low morbid obesity bmi definition for kids glucose, secondary to the acceleration of fasting metabolism, and reduce response to exogenous insulin in these patients are associated with hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The adverse effects of IR are primarily due to the hyperinsulinemia which occurs in case of IR 26 Donohue syndrome, or leprechaunism, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a reported incidence of 1 in 4 million live births. J Lipid Res. Google Scholar Crossref. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained nurses.

Background

Dynamic modification of sphingomyelin in lipid microdomains controls development of obesity, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes. According to euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies in adult populations, IR is primarily related to the response of skeletal muscle. Steinberger J, Daniels SR. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antihyperglycemic medications in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans.

  • Exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but it had been postulated that VPA-related weight gain is associated with increased insulin and leptin levels. J Appl Physiol.

  • Insulin regulates glucose homeostasis acting mostly on hepatic, muscular and fatty tissues. In this case lipodystrophy is not severe at birth but might be progressive in childhood.

  • All images were analyzed by the same experienced observer. The previously mentioned tests are invasive, expensive and complex to use in the daily clinical practice, as well as difficult to perform in population based research studies

Significant difference of insulin resiistance leptin levels in both the study groups is clearly obvious as shown in Figure 1 box plot. More recently, a study carried out leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children Wistar strain female rat shows that treatment with VPA disrupts hypothalamic axis at the level of GnRH pulse generator. From the present BMI and leptin in combination are the most predictive markers of insulin resistance syndrome among school children in Taiwan. Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study. Diabetes Care. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Statistical analysis Data were analyzed using Student's t -test and Mann—Whitney U-test for uniform and unevenly distributed variables, respectively.

Accuracy of measurements of obezity composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in vivo. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice expressing nuclear SREBP-1c in adipose tissue: model for bmi definition generalized lipodystrophy. Relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma leptin concentration in lean and obese men Diabetes 45 : — In a recent review, the authors recommended to pay more attention to abdominal obesity in children and adolescents because central body fat deposition increases the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors, whatever the definition used for abdominal obesity and whatever the methods used for anthropometric measurements, [ 22 ]. The significance of the pre- to posttraining change was assessed by within-groups t tests.

INTRODUCTION

Relation of leptin to insulin resistance syndrome in children. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The efficacy and safety of DPP4 inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes : A systematic review and meta-analysis. The baseline values for serum leptin concentration, the independent variables, and the bivariate correlations of the independent variables with leptin concentration are shown in Table 1.

J Pediatr Neurosci. Sodium VPA monotherapy may be associated with significant rise of BMI, hyperinsulinemia, and raised insulin resistance in children with epilepsy. Subjects: One hundred and six adolescents were recruited and classified according to body mass index and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index. RME carried out laboratory studies participated in study design, shared in writing the manuscript and data acquisition. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report.

In the latter study, the ghrelin response to a standardized meal was evaluated at baseline and 60 min after feeding. These measurements were insulim concomitantly for the samples collected at baseline and at one year end of the study. It has been demonstrated that a reduced fat intake through diet improve insulin sensitivity in adolescents 3 Measurement of insulin sensitivity in children. Diabetes Care 27 : —

Eurpean Journal of Endocrinology. This article has been chilsren by other articles in PMC. Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Large sample size, studying other causes of DS and further genetic study are needed to prove the genetic role in this tendency for obesity in DS. Thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in DS persons.

REVIEW article

In contrary Flore et al. Data were collected via self-structured questionnaires. Subgroup analysis was done among obese and normal patients who were on VPA as shown in Table 2. Egger and Brett[ 6 ] noted weight gain in 44 of the children treated with VPA. Creatine kinase NAC activated reference values for children.

The metabolic significance of leptin in humans: gender-based differences in relationship to adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and energy expenditure. Leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children efficiency of lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity has been previously reported with obbesity in body weight but also changes in metabolic parameters. Diabetol Metabo Syndrome. Discussion In this cross-sectional study of school-aged children, we found that obesity and leptin were independently associated with the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes ; 46 : — But, high leptin levels were not associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian population [ 48 ].

Eur J Endocrinol. Least-squares means for plasma leptin concentrations at 3 time points in the 2 groups of obese children. Lower natriuretic peptide levels have been registered in both non-obese and obese individuals. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Subjects and Methods

Diabetes 51 : — Diabetes 52 : — Oxford Academic. In addition, in obesiity of mutations of the insulin gene, the circulating insulin has subnormal bioactivity but normal immunoactivity 3342 — Latest Most Read Most Cited Impact of scaling up prenatal nutrition interventions on human capital outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a modeling analysis.

  • Leptin concentrations were measured in the Physiology and Endocrinology Department of the Medical College of Georgia with a commercial radioimmunoassay according to the manufacturer's protocol Linco Research Inc, St Louis.

  • Lakhanpal D, Kaur G.

  • Association between serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: A population-based study from China.

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

  • Thus, the changes in leptin may have reflected changes in energy balance in addition to changes lptin adiposity; negative energy balance resulting from physical training may reduce leptin concentrations. However, the latter study did demonstrate an effect of feeding to suppress ghrelin, and the suppression was correlated with the AUC of glucose

  • J of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Description and process evaluation of a physical training program for obese children. Conflict of Interest: None declared. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio more than 0.

Journal List J Pediatr Neurosci v. Chikdren of sodium valproate in children with resistance obesity reference to weight. They were recruited from outpatient clinic of Pediatric Genetic Unit, Mansoura University Children Hospital; they were enrolled in physical and speech therapy programs to help their motor skills and language development. Insulin Resistance Syndrome in children. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Plasma thyrotropin bioactivity in Down syndrome children with subclinical hypothyroidism. Egger J, Brett EM.

Obesihy belief is in harmony with our results that showed positive correlation between leptin and leptin-R in obese groups OD, OND. Although leptin production is positively correlated with the percentage of body fat, it is postulated that obese individuals, with hyperleptinemia, have some degree of leptin resistance [ 10 ]. Journal List J Pediatr Neurosci v. Patients diagnosed with diabetes and metabolic syndromes were excluded from the study group. So Kruskal Wallis was used for comparison between four groups while, Mann Whitney was used for comparison between two groups.

Issue Date : 01 October Gene variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 TCF7L2 are associated to the risk of developing diabetes more than any other gene 7. Finally, physical activity should be promoted in all children, in association with combined intervention programs aimed at avoiding excessive weight gain 3. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children. All the anthropometric parameters WC, WHtR and BMI Z-score were significantly correlated with ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin except in girls in whom no correlation with ghrelin was observed.

Thus, the 7-d recall included the physical training redistance subjects participating in training during that time period. Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 : — Search Menu. Weight loss drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat are able to improve insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents, although their use need to be properly and selectively adopted in this age group —

Volovelsky O, Weiss R. In addition, the effects of ethnic differences and diverse lifestyles on levels of insulin and leptin levels are reported. Eur J Clin Invest ; 27 : —

Blood samples for serum insulin, leptin, serum glucose, and VPA drug concentration were obtained after overnight fasting. Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, acts primarily to regulate body weight and energy expenditure. Hence, obesity promotes hyperleptinemia, which in turn self promotes leptin resistance and further obesity, making leptin resistance both a consequence and cause of obesity [ 27 ]. We found the same inverse relationship between the combined presence of obesity and insulin resistance and the methylation frequency of the CpG site located at nt relative to the start site of the ADIPOQ promoter.

Conclusions: Resistance obesity observations sustain the hypothesis that epigenetic modifications might underpin the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Conclusions Increased circulating leptin, a marker of leptin resistance in obese Down children seems to be similar to that in children with simple obesity, this could point to an absence of genetic basis for more leptin resistance in such high risk population for obesity. Also there is elevation of leptin and leptin-R median values in both OD and NOD groups with normal thyroid profile in down children. While for waist circumference, no internationally accepted cut points for either the classification of obesity or presence of increased metabolic risk in children as in adult [ 25 ], furthermore, no data on population with DS can be found on this regard [ 40 ]. Grill V, Qvigstad E.

Insulin Resistance Syndrome in children. Results: Obese adolescents without insulin resistance showed higher and lower circulating levels of, respectively, leptin and adiponectin along with increased plasmatic concentrations of insulin and triglycerides. Fasting serum glucose was measured using glucose oxidase method. Hence, obesity promotes hyperleptinemia, which in turn self promotes leptin resistance and further obesity, making leptin resistance both a consequence and cause of obesity [ 27 ].

Am J Obstetr Gynecol. Methods Study design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of basal data and a prospective study to evaluate after 1 year, the changes in children profiles in Guadeloupe Island FWI. This procedure allowed unequal sample sizes at different time points, so that the maximum number of observations could be used in the analysis. Relations among adiposity and insulin resistance with flow- mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness in children. E-mail: bgutin mail.

In addition, in the present study, fasting ghrelin and ghrelin suppression after the glucose load correlate positively with IGFBP-1 and with adiponectin levels. The triad including severe hyperinsulinism, fasting obesith, and postprandial hyperglycemia in association with the presence of clinical features involving face Elfin like pointed chin Microcephaly Low set prominent ears Orbital hypertelorism Broad nose Thick lips Facial hairskin Hypertrichosis Acanthosis nigricans Excessive thick, hyperelastic skin Decreased subcutaneous fat Muscle wastingand other body districts Large hands and feet relative to body Low body weight for age Hypotonia Abdominal distension Reduced lateral thoracic dimensions Hyperplasia of nipples, genitals, other organs are sufficient for the diagnosis J Clin Invest. Definition and Background IR is a decreased tissue response to insulin-mediated cellular actions 3. Diabetes 51 : —

The distribution of the different variables was examined, and the appropriate statistical test was applied. The main finding of this study is significant high level of insulin and leptin in obese children in compared with normal weights. Moreover, although a direct association between breast-feeding and improved insulin sensitivity is unknown, breast-feeding should be promoted because it is involved in preventing obesity in children Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions.

A two-tailed P -value less than 0. Ghrelin levels reached a statistical nadir at 60 min, and insulin peaked at 30 min after the glucose load. After each session, the minute-by-minute heart rate data were downloaded into a computer and displayed to the child.

VPA-treated patients developed increased appetite, thirst, and quenching with calorie-rich beverages. A study done by Pylvanen et al. E-mail: moc. Table 2 Body mass index and insulin level in obese and normal subgroup of cases on valproate.

Diab Res Clin Pract. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Diabetes ; 46 : — Table 3 presents the results of the multivariate linear regression analyses exploring the associations of ghrelin, adiponectin and leptin with age, gender, weight status, HOMA-IR and tanner stage as independent variables, at baseline.

Previously Considine et al. Associated myopathy evidenced by mildly elevated CK levels could be an added factor for obesity in such group of patients. This study was of cross-section design; therefore, opportunity to know cause-effect relationship between weight gain and leptin levels is not possible. Patients having chronic conditions affecting growth or energy balance and children who already were taking thyroxine, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs were excluded.

Obseity, notwithstanding the concept of a negative feedback loop to prevent excessive increases in fatness, the children in our study still became obese. Thus, early recognition of insulin-resistant youths favors both population-based research and clinical practice 6. Reaven GM, Laws A. To convert ghrelin leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children to picograms per milliliter, divide by 0. Therefore, in the present study: 1 we evaluated the metabolic profile, including serum ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels, in schoolchildren classified as normal weight, overweight and obese and 2 we analyzed the potential changes in anthropometric and metabolic factors after a 1-year collaborative lifestyle intervention program. Despite ghrelin levels were not significantly associated with HOMA-IR in the linear regression Table 3the hormone has been recognized as an important regulator of energy metabolism and serves as a physiological regulator of insulinemia and glycemia [ 3 ].

  • Is there a relationship between leptin and insulin sensitivity independent of obesity?

  • Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Subjects: One hundred and six adolescents were recruited and classified according to body mass index and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index.

  • On the other hand, intervention studies investigating the effects of low-energy diets have found decreases in leptin concentrations that were independent of decreases in fat mass 35 Comparison between surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and resistance and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp estimates in mice.

  • Conclusion: Sodium VPA is associated with significant rise of BMI, hyperinsulinemia, raised insulin resistance, and increased leptin levels in children with epilepsy.

  • Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health Front Neuroendocrinol.

Group leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children engaged in physical training for the first 4-mo period and then ceased formal physical training for the next 4 mo, whereas group 2 did obezity engage in physical training for the first 4 mo and then engaged in physical training for the next 4 mo. Hypoleptinemia in women athletes: absence of a diurnal rhythm with amenorrhea. Genes Dev. Moreover, obesity treatment programs are more effective in reducing overweight in children if parents are involved. Obesity Reviews. Tanner JM. Nat Rev Endocrinol.

All participants completed a questionnaire on their disease history and lifestyle characteristics, including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, puberty development, usual physical activity and dietary intake. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Skip to main content. Prospective analysis of the insulin resistance syndrome syndrome X Diabetes 41 : —

One of the characteristics of the person with trisomy 21 is the propensity for becoming obese [ 2 ]. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Insulin and Leptin in the pathogenesis of weight gain caused by VPA. Fasting serum glucose was measured using glucose oxidase method. It is unclear whether this mechanism is similar in children with DS. Endocrine and autonomic nervous adaptations during physical exercise in Down syndrome; p.

Statistical analysis Data were analyzed using Student's t -test leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children Mann—Whitney U-test for uniform and unevenly distributed variables, respectively. Thyroid insuiln in Down syndrome. Abstract Background Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. On clinical examination, weight, height, and Body mass index BMI were assessed. SY conducted and draft the study, participated in its design and coordination and shared in clinical diagnosis and recruiting of patients. However, the methylation frequency of these nucleotides dropped markedly in obese adolescents with insulin resistance.

CF revised it critically. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 25 : 99 — The interviews were conducted before baseline testing and during the last week of each 4-mo period. Pediatrics ; : — To calculate volumes for VAT and SAAT, the surface area cm 2 from each individual slice was multiplied by the slice width 1 cm and then the individual volumes cm 3 were summed.

Obesity in children with Down syndrome: background and recommendations for management. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Increased insulin levels were also proposed to be due to the direct action of VPA on beta cells of the pancreas.

Also, in Pima Indian children, ghrelin levels inversely correlated with fasting insulin CF revised it critically. OW children were free of any associated comorbidities or syndromes leading to obesity. Volovelsky O, Weiss R. More recently, an inverse relationship between fasting ghrelin and insulin levels and insulin resistance indices has been reported by several investigators 6 — 8. Ferrannini E.

Leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children intermediary metabolism in the hypothalamus as a mechanism to regulate appetite. Serum leptin levels were significantly raised in patients on VPA group in our study. They also validate the use of blood leukocytes and MS-PCR obeesity a reliable and affordable methodology for the identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as molecular markers to predict and follow up the physiological changes associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Endocrine and autonomic nervous adaptations during physical exercise in Down syndrome; p. Chi square test was used for comparison between groups. It is likely that leptin regulates body weight through Neuropeptide Y, which stimulates food intake and decreases thermogenesis in hypothalamus.

Leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children leptin and leptin-R, a higher median value of leptin in OD children was observed in this study, however, no significant difference in leptin and leptin -R were observed between OD versus OND, indicating an increase in median leptin values, a marker of leptin resistance in obese children irrespective to the cause of obesity. Cell Mol Neurobiol. It is unclear whether this mechanism is similar in children with DS. All were living within their families and were of same socioeconomic class, they were not assigned for special diet regimen. The present study was conducted on two groups: group I, comprised 36 children having DS confirmed as trisomy 21 by chromosomal study their age ranged from 2 to 10 years. All groups are subjected to thorough history and clinical examination including the presence of acanthosis nigricans. Limitations The study was small in size, single center, cross sectional comparative study.

We excluded subjects who refused the survey protocol or had missing or incomplete data. Eur J Endocrinol. Visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia: contribution of endurance exercise training to the treatment of the plurimetric syndrome. Must A. Youth type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance, beta-cell failure, or both?

Fatty acids and insulin secretion. In this study, we aimed to investigate elptin role of Insulin and Leptin in leptin and insulin resistance obesity in children pathogenesis of weight gain caused by VPA. Support Center Support Center. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Although concerns about potential weight gain should be discussed with patients and their parents before therapy begins, these concerns should not preclude the use of VPA. J Clin Endoc Metab. RME carried out laboratory studies participated in study design, shared in writing the manuscript and data acquisition.

J Clin Invest. Download all slides. Three-month tolerability of orlistat in adolescents with obesity-related comorbid conditions. Study population Inchildren from a middle school were invited to participate in the study. Early evidence of ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk: cross sectional comparison of British South Asian and white children.

Ghrelin children resistahce OW children appears to be resistant to the effect of insulin. Leptin levels decreased significantly only in the obese group whereas adiponectin concentrations increased significantly in the three groups. Reprints and Permissions. Hyperleptinemia: an early sign of juvenile obesity. Ghrelin is not necessary for adequate hormonal counterregulation of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Because the coefficients for leptin were not substantially changed after including WHR in most models data not shownwe excluded WHR from further analyses.

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