Obesity

Lower limb joint coordination pattern in obese subjects definition – Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

As locomotion is one of the most important and frequent tasks in daily life, gait has been extensively analyzed in previous studies; some of which demonstrated that obesity alters the body's motor scheme, in terms of time-distance, kinematic, and kinetic parameters [ 4 , 5 ].

Contradictory results come from studies of taxonomically narrow and phylogenetically close mammal groups, however, such as detinition families. Houck, and A. Table 3. The hypothesis of careful neural control of lateral displacement of the body is in line with findings on treadmill walking, where healthy subjects adopt a wider base of support, compared to ground walking see Note S3. Whittle M. For each subject, the time-distance parameters were obtained by averaging the data of the valid strides of 10 successful trials.

  • Changes with age and Parkinson's disease hints to rehabilitation.

  • Quigley, and J. The means and the standard deviations of the ensemble CRP curves are shown in Figure 2.

  • Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off.

  • As time- dynamometer. Alessandro Pinto.

Background

Van Den Bogert, G. Davis, Coordinaation. Table 2 Means, standard deviations of the time-distance parameters, and their statistical significance P values. Twenty-five controls BMI range: The anthropometric measurements were based on body weight and stature SECA scale, Hamburg, Germany for the calculation of the BMI and waist circumference measured with an inextensible tape measure midway between the lower rib margin and the iliac crest.

Effects of obesity and submects low back pain on gait. Received Aug 13; Accepted Oct Gait changes in older adults: predictors of falls or indicators of fear? The first index is the mean absolute relative phase MARPwhich was computed by averaging the absolute values of the ensemble curve points for both the stance and the swing phases:. Barbier, J.

CMC, that is, the positive square root of the adjusted coefficient of multiple determination [ 3738 ], is a measure of the overall waveform similarity of a group of curves; the closer to 1 the CMC is, the more similar the waveforms are. Gait changes in older adults: predictors of falls or indicators of fear? References [17] M. Kurz MJ, Stergiou N. The role of vision in obese and normal-weight children's gait control. Obesity effect on male active joint range of motion. For each angle, we calculated the range of motion ROMdefined as the differences between the maximum and minimum values during the gait cycles.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

Figure 2. Data collection Reflective markers were placed on the right foot and leg according to the Rizzoli Foot Model [ 618 ]. The peaks of curvature of the CoM path and its lateral oscillations provide an interesting focus for the assessment of balance during walking.

The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles. View at: Google Scholar E. Quigley, and [43] Y. Van Uden, J. Galli et al. Time-Distance Data.

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These events allow the CoM to be actively redirected toward the opposite side. The hypothesis of careful neural control of lateral displacement of the body is in line with findings on treadmill walking, where healthy subjects adopt a wider base of support, late onset hypogonadism adalah organization to ground walking see Note S3. Averages of three to nine strides per individual were used in further analyses. Kinematic data were time normalized to stance phase duration using the ground reaction force data to detect stance events. Similar to coronal plane motion at the midtarsal joint, a shift to in-phase coordination was observed in late stance due to simultaneous inversion of tarso-metatarsal and ankle joints. Pendular energy transduction within the step in human walking. Also, it might better fit the clinical assessment, still based mostly on visual observation of gait impairments.

  • The affected lower limb of hemiparetic patients produces less work than it could potentially deliver.

  • View at: Google Scholar U. Trunk flexibility, defined as the distance between the fingertips and the floor, was evaluated by asking the subjects to reach down towards the floor in front of their feet as far as possible while standing with knees in an extended position.

  • Body mass was measured with a digital weighing scale just prior to the gait data collection. Whatever the reasons, reverting the tendency to retain asymmetry seems an appropriate goal, yet a very difficult challenge, for rehabilitation medicine.

  • Table 1 Means, ranges, standard deviations, and t -test significance P values of the personal, anthropometric, and functional characteristics of the two groups.

Modeling margin of stability with feet in place following a postural perturbation: defihition definition altered anthropometric models for estimated extrapolated centre of mass. This is confirmed by the increased power production during ankle plantar flexion compared with other sagittal joint rotations 67 and the increased power production during increment a compared with that of increment b of E tot. LT designed and wrote the content of the manuscript. These studies show that appropriate modeling of positive work i. Vismara, M. The double support phase within the stride, defined as the time spent by subjects with both feet on the ground, was also considered.

The lower limb joint coordination pattern in obese subjects definition variability in the coupling parameters is associated with submects increased risk of falls and thus should be taken into account when designing treatments aimed at restoring a normal locomotion pattern. Altered ankle kinematics and shank-rear-foot coupling in those with chronic ankle instability. Functional limitations linked to high body mass index, age and current pain in obese women. Indeed, according to Maki [ 39 ], changes in the time-distance parameters in obese subjects may also be associated with a preexisting fear of falling. Bussel, and N. Altered inter-joint coordination during walking in patients with total hip arthroplasty. Saraph, S.

1. Introduction

Both controls and obese subjects underwent anthropometric and functional examinations Table 1. Davis, S. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Exclusion criteria were severe cardiovascular disease, neurological impairment and lower extremity trauma, lower extremity surgery, and appreciable leg discrepancy. Effects of childhood obesity on three-dimensional knee joint biomechanics during walking.

  • The literature on split-belt walking as a rehabilitation treatment is increasing rapidly, despite the fact that some basic issues remain controversial.

  • Bianchi, and F.

  • Experiments began with a standing trial, in which rest joint angular displacements were acquired. American journal of physical anthropology.

  • ATS statement: guidelines for the 6-minute walk test.

Emmerik, and J. BioMed Research International, []. We observed a substantial sim- 2. Time-distance parameters Obese subjects Controls values Stride duration s 0. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact19 401 Dec The calibrated walking volume consisted of a level surface that was approximately 6 m in length, with a width of 1. We hypothesize that the afore-mentioned neuromuscular adaptations may be the result of walking control mechanisms designed to preserve a physiological inter-joint lower-limb coupling pattern.

  • Previous studies have shown that in obesity there is a neuromuscular adaptation, implemented by a decreasing self-selected gait speed, which results in reduced ground reaction forces, lower joint loads, and net muscle moments during gait and is aimed at reducing the risk of musculoskeletal diseases [ 842 ]. This suggests that the assumption of child-adult geometric similarity, justifying the use of the Froude number, is tenable despite some concerns raised in the Literature 48 ,

  • Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Anthropo- placement of passive markers in obese subjects, due to the metric measurements were performed and body composi- excessive adipose tissue in the abdominal and pelvic areas.

  • A huge amount of research, a true odyssey 1has been dedicated to the physiology of human walking.

The effect of lower limb length on the energetic cost of locomotion: implications for fossil hominins. The addition and pattsrn of two SDs was done to get simulations representing the range of a normal human variation in the manipulated parameters. Fig 4. Google Scholar Multiple sclerosis alters the mechanical work performed on the body's center of mass during gait. In adolescents with unilateral cerebral palsy, W ext,m is only mildly increased

Thirteen healthy adults were recruited in this study 5 M, 8 F; age B The ordinate gives the average power provided by muscles to sustain the a and the b increments during double and single stance, respectively of the total mechanical energy of the CoM E totsee also Note S5 during one entire stride in three below-knee dots labeled b1—b3 and four above-knee dots labeled a1—a4 amputees. Optimal muscular coordination strategies for jumping. Influence of body mass and lower limb length on knee flexion angle during walking in humans.

BioMed Research International

Each participant provided written informed consent prior to participation, and the coordinatlon was approved by the University Integrated Institutional Review Board, Hunter College, City University of New York. Construct validity of the walk ratio as a measure of gait control in people with multiple sclerosis without mobility aids. In late stance, when the tarso-metatarsal joint also begins to invert, in-phase coordination becomes more predominant due to the simultaneous motion at both joints Fig.

Data were smoothed using a triangular four-order window filter. Three-dimensional gait analysis of obese adults. Barak, R. View at: Publisher Site Google Scholar. Functional tests demonstrated and ankle range of motions ROM on the sagittal plane [6].

We considered values of less than 0. Kadaba, H. Exclusion criteria were severe cardiovascular disease, neurological impairment and lower extremity trauma, lower extremity surgery, and appreciable leg discrepancy. Brochu, and F. Hof, M. For each variable, the Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to assess the Gaussian distribution of the two samples. Steinwender, V.

Limbb internal redirection during single stance is thus a critical phase of the step, in which the passive-ballistic motion must be suddenly and briefly superseded via active neural control imposing a small and swift absorption of external power in order to brake the CoM, just before the active redirection defnition the opposite side. Meanwhile, their joint coordination pattern in raising the mass of the swinging leg contributes to the lift of the CoM 59and thus, to increment b of E totduring the subsequent early single-limb support Region 2. As time-distance gait parameters, we evaluated stride duration, mean speed, cadence, duration of the stance, swing and double support phases within the stride all evaluated as percentages of the stride durationstep length, and step width. Quantification of rear-foot, fore-foot coordination pattern during gait using a new classification. It was read as an age-related biomechanical change associated with a lower ability to maintain a stable body balance, which might increase the risk of falls during walking. Trunk flexibility, defined as the distance between the fingertips and the floor, was evaluated by asking the subjects to reach down towards the floor in front of their feet as far as possible while standing with knees in an extended position.

Biomechanics

Obese subjects and controls were then instructed to walk barefoot at a self-selected speed along the level surface. Sample statistics of anthropometric parameters are given in Table 1. Model-based estimation of muscle forces exerted during movements.

Kalron A. Kram, and A. All of these signs may coexist in the case of an escape limp. The 0.

Kelso, and H. Since multijoint coordination impairment accompanies F 17 17 numerous pathologies, the CRP has also been used to analyze Age range years 34—58 33—59 0. However, a significant decrease emerged in obese subjects in pelvic obliquity and in knee joint flexion-extension ROMs, whereas a significant increase was observed in pelvic tilt ROM. Chiu, T.

BioMed Research International

Vismara, V. Stergiou, U. Galli, F. Assuming that this speed would be slower in the parameters.

Phys Ther86 1101 Nov Gazendam, and W. By contrast, lower-limb joint kinematic parameters in obese subjects walking at a self-selected velocity were found to be similar to those of healthy subjects [ 9 ]. McKeon, G. Capodaglio, G.

Journal of Biomechanics. The average velocity selected spontaneously and, for any velocity, the step cadence and length, are very close to those allowing to minimize the total energy expenditure and W extand to maximize R see Note S4 for details. The results obexe the present study could be of importance for clinicians as the body size should be considered when analyzing deviations from normal gait patterns. Temporal profiles of joint rotations are widely used in 3D gait analysis to report and assess foot motion during common motor tasks, but these are often analyzed in isolation thus preventing the observation of the complex kinematic interaction between adjacent joints. A model of bipedal locomotion on compliant legs. A Illustrative joint moments at the hip solid lineknee dashed lineand ankle dotted line with peak moments indicated.

Biomechanics

Van Kampen, J. To determine the subjecs of homogeneity within each group, we also calculated the within-group coefficient of multiple correlation CMC WG between the mean waveforms of the subjects in the obese group and in the healthy group. Indeed, the greater double support and stance phase is likely to provide a safer locomotion by maintaining the weight on both limbs and not overloading one limb, thereby reducing the risk of instability [ 9 ]. By contrast, the joint coordination variability, as calculated by means of the DP, was always greater in obese subjects than in controls. The choice of such method instead of others based on principal component analysis [ 41 ] was determined by the need to quantify, sample by sample, the coupling relationship between two joints.

  • Brunani, L.

  • Cava E. For each subject, the time-distance parameters were obtained by averaging the data of the valid strides of 10 successful trials.

  • Internal femoral forces and moments during running: Implications for stress fracture development. Symmetry and limb dominance in able-bodied gait: a review.

  • Alessandro Pinto Search articles by 'Alessandro Pinto'. Cava E .

  • Polk JD.

Liu, and T. In hoint of the above, the reduction of the variability associated to the lower-limb joint coupling relationships analyzed in the present study may prove useful as indexes to design and assess the effectiveness of dietary treatment, of physical exercise and of rehabilitative protocols adopted. To evaluate the group effect on the mean joint coupling variables we calculated the between-group coefficient of multiple correlation CMC BG between the mean waveforms of the obese and the control groups. The time-distance parameters and joint kinematics were also measured.

Increased age and height were associated with shorter height-normalized paths, due to narrowing of the lateral dimension. The key point is that, in most clinical conditions, gait analysis seems to add little to a skilled visual assessment, coordination pattern respect to conventional clinical decision making Mechanics of translation in the fosbury-flop. In Fig 6 we show that body mass increases the peak net moments at all the three joints regardless of the relative DP location. However, from analyzing the results in the literature, at least three unexpected findings could be identified. During late stance, a large gradient of 1st metatarso-phalangeal joint dorsiflexion compared to that of ankle inversion results in a strong distal phase coordination pattern Table 1.

Cimolin, L. A low DP value indicates a less variable intrasubjects stride-to-stride relationship between the actions of the two joints. De Souza, J. In a recent study by Yen et al. Paolini et al. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors. View at: Google Scholar W.

The increased variability in the coupling parameters is associated with an increased risk of falls and thus should be taken into account when designing treatments aimed at restoring a normal locomotion pattern. H: hip, K: knee, A: ankle. Hutin, D. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. We hypothesize that the afore-mentioned neuromuscular adaptations may be the result of walking control mechanisms designed to preserve a physiological inter-joint lower-limb coupling pattern.

Moreover, Malatesta et al. It has been observed that adaptive changes in coordination patterns are due to obexe external and internal constraints. Bianchi, and F. Thus, in order to avoid the potential velocity bias, time-distance, kinematic, and coordination parameters were compared between obese subjects walking at self-selected speed and controls walking at low speed. In obese and stride length than normal people [6, 7]. None of the controls volunteers had pathologies known to influence the normal gait pattern.

In: BioMed Research International. In-bold P values are lower than 0. In this ij we performed an exhaustive gait analysis to investigate the time-distance, kinematic, and coordinative alterations that occur in obese subjects. As time-distance gait parameters, we evaluated stride duration, mean speed, cadence, duration of the stance, swing and double support phases within the stride all evaluated as percentages of the stride durationstep length, and step width. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Lower-limb joint coordination pattern in obese subjects'. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait.

Wagenaar, J. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. Buzzi, and A. Gorton, and G. Twenty-five controls BMI range:

DeLeo, T. Villa, and E. Li, and M. Lu, and L.

  • This sequence is well-known for adults 6162 and children 63 and is reported in many manuals on gait analysis [such as Figures 8. Increased age and height were associated with shorter height-normalized paths, due to narrowing of the lateral dimension.

  • Materials and Methods 3. Table 1.

  • H: hip, K: knee, A: ankle.

The subject's trunk will show rhythmic back-forth, and left-right oscillations, with no average forward displacement. C Graph of kbese curvature of the trajectory. In most lower limb joint coordination pattern in obese subjects definition conditions, steps tend to be even shorter hence, their cadence higher than is physiologically necessary for the lower speed that is adopted. Leicht, F. Dev Med Child Neurol. A Illustrative joint moments at the hip solid lineknee dashed lineand ankle dotted line with peak moments indicated. When realized through the indirect kinematic method, studying the CoM motion only requires a dedicated software routine to be added to the software package for kinematic analysis provided by the manufacturers.

  • In recent years, a small number of studies have measured the instantaneous changes of E tot i. The accuracy of the DP model was assessed experimentally in a sample of ten non-obese adults 4 males, 6 females; age:

  • Obesity is characterized by the presence of excess mass at pelvis and lower-limb areas, causing mechanical constraints that central nervous system could manage modifying the physiological interjoint coupling relationships. Nantel, M.

  • Although this finding can be also interpreted as a strategy to moderate the increase of hip flexion moment, we point out that the correlation is weak and the lower limb length uniquely explains only 5.

  • View at: Publisher Site Google Scholar.

  • Evidence is provided in the following paragraphs and is further discussed in Note S5. Fig 5.

  • Li, E. Recent Activity.

Inter-joint coordination on the sagittal plane was assessed by using the CRP technique [ 213435 ]. Li, and M. The anthropometric measurements were based on body weight and stature SECA scale, Lower limb joint coordination pattern in obese subjects definition, Germany for the calculation of the BMI and waist circumference measured with an inextensible tape measure midway between the lower rib margin and the iliac crest. This motor behaviour, anchored to the physiological coordinative strategy, results in the high CMC WG and CMC BG values that point to a strong similarity among obese subjects as well as between obese and control subjects in inter-joint lower-limb couplings. Since an altered coordination pattern may induce joint diseases and falls risk, the aim of this study was to analyze whether and how coordination during walking is affected by obesity. Winogrodzka, R. A one-minute rest period was given between groups of 3 trials to avoid fatigue.

View at: Google Scholar U. A recent study aimed to relate the CoM path to age in children 5—13 years old and adults 23—48 years old using metric distances normalized to subjects' height. Our model consists of four segments: pelvis, thigh, shank, and foot. More recently, the cerebellum has been suggested to have a key role in consolidation of the treatment effect, specifically the after-effect see below

Classical Mechanics. Experiments began with a standing trial, in which rest joint angular displacements were acquired. If the prolongation of lower limb is associated with the shift of the DP location closer to the hip, then the peak moments at the hip would not be increased. Effects of movement for estimating the hip joint centre.

Although the inductive approach used in these studies identifies interesting statistical relationships, further insight into their function patetrn be provided by a modeling approach. The condition for dynamic stability. These are coincident with peaks of curvature along the CoM trajectory. Effects of changing speed on knee and ankle joint load during walking and running.

On the other deginition, most of the work to liwer the body system and its segments, and its largest displacements, can be observed in the sagittal plane 20 so that most of the conclusions on work production do not change remarkably when organization other planes are also considered. In contrast, no relationship between body size and posture was detected among cats Felidae [ 30 ] or elephants Elephantidae [ 31 ], despite great variation in body size in both samples fold and seven-fold body size range, respectively. The influence of treadmill inclination on the gait of ambulatory hemiparetic subjects. The main adaptations of walking to body size and shape, muscle strength and joint mobility are related to velocity and the step length that is adopted and attainable In general increment a is due to the fact that E kf increases more than Ev decreases, while the opposite is true for increment b

Tyburski, and J. Functional limitations linked to high body mass index, age and current pain in obese women. Wootten, J. The accuracy of the marker placement in obese subjects is one possible limitation of this work. Cava E .

  • Walking along curved trajectories. D Thickened tracts mark the segments of the trajectory where the instantaneous recovery of mechanical energy, R instis at or below 0.

  • Sergio Iavicoli. Obese subjects and controls were then instructed to walk barefoot at a self-selected speed along the level surface.

  • Arnold View author publications.

  • Vismara, F. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

  • It was read as an age-related biome- reported lower ROMs in obese subjects than in controls chanical change associated with a lower ability to maintain walking at a self-selected speed. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact19 401 Dec

Do spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability differ across the lifespan of healthy adults? Indeed, definiiton greater double support and stance phase is likely to provide a safer locomotion by maintaining the weight on ljmb limbs and not overloading one limb, coordination pattern reducing the risk of instability [ 9 ]. A paradoxical decrease of W ext,m has been identified in adolescents who were operated on for scoliosis 81who were also found to walk with a higher step frequency, hence, a shorter step length. In addition, body mass affected in a direct proportion also the mass of the lower limb segments. In this context, it appears that the critical function of locomotion is made possible by mechanical strategies that are widespread within the animal realm. A possible explanation could be that reduced hip flexion at early stance not only moderates hip moments, but also shortens the step, which would negatively affect the velocity and increase the number of steps to cover a given distance.

Liu, and T. Mariano Serrao. H: values. It is related to the interaction of erroneous eating habits, reduced energy consumption, and metabolic alterations [ 1 ]. Exclusion criteria were severe cardiovascular disease, neurological impairment and lower extremity trauma, lower extremity surgery, and appreciable leg discrepancy. In obese subjects, body movements are affected by the excess mass, which alters the individual's range of motions and exerts excessive joint load, thereby causing a high incidence of musculoskeletal disorders [ 2 ]. Lai, A.

Effects of obesity class on flat ground walking and obstacle negotiation. Obese adults walk related to the interaction of erroneous eating habits, reduced with a wider support base and a lower speed, cadence, energy consumption, and metabolic alterations [1]. Description loeer Obese Subjects and Controls. In view of the above, the reduction of the variability associated to the lower-limb joint coupling relationships analyzed in the present study may prove useful as indexes to design and assess the effectiveness of dietary treatment, of physical exercise and of rehabilitative protocols adopted. Since multijoint coordination impairment accompanies F 17 17 numerous pathologies, the CRP has also been used to analyze Age range years 34—58 33—59 0. The accuracy of the marker placement in obese subjects is one possible limitation of this work.

Donini LM. Kurz MJ, Stergiou N. Both controls and obese subjects underwent anthropometric and functional examinations Table 1. Accepted 29 Oct

  • On the other hand, we did not detect any body mass-related postural adjustments at late stance.

  • Faintuch, A. Recent history Saved searches.

  • Each band encases the 10th to the 90th percentiles of the EMG amplitudes from the corresponding muscle. Table 2.

Obese explanations, including lowfr resting on the Darwinian model of evolution, are not testable experimentally and therefore are pure conjectures yet, they are still part of the process of generating hypotheses Body mass is negatively related to the knee flexion, whereas lower limb length is negatively related to the hip flexion. Received : 16 May However, traditional kinematic analysis does not allow to capture the complexity of coordination between foot joint rotations. The stride is considered to begin when E kf reaches a maximum. Systematic review and meta-analysis of gait mechanics in young and older adults. All of these signs may coexist in the case of an escape limp.

Treadmill vs. Individuals were taking part in a larger investigation on the effects of ageing on lower limb kinematics [ 17 ]. Download references. Construct validity of the walk ratio as a measure of gait control in people with multiple sclerosis without mobility aids.

Another possible explanation give the CNS more time to react to obstacles [39]. Since the distribution of this excess fat is coordinatiin the same in men and women [ 45 ], a study designed to analyze gender differences in coordinative strategies may help confirm these results. This altered gait pattern is probably related to an increased need for stabilization caused by obesity. For this reason, in the kinematic results, the small differences observed in pelvic ROMs between obese subjects and controls could be considered as not relevant, especially taking into account that the pelvic angular excursions are very small.

The effect of 2 SD increments of body size on peak net joint moments is presented in Table 5 and Fig 6. The potential clinical usefulness of the XCoM analysis, capturing the balance variable definiion walking, cannot be underestimated. On the other hand, monocular vision will be more effective, from a behavioral standpoint, than diplopia. Although the inductive approach used in these studies identifies interesting statistical relationships, further insight into their function could be provided by a modeling approach. The raw kinematic, vertical ground reaction force, and COP data were filtered using a fourth-order low-pass Butterworth filter with a 6 Hz cut-off frequency [ 55 ] in Visual3D software. These studies show that appropriate modeling of positive work i.

Moreover, coordination patterns between joint rotations across different planes and according to known anatomical ocordination functional relationships in the foot, e. This raises a critical challenge to rehabilitation aiming at restoring symmetry, as will be clarified later on. This provides a visual index of the reduced propulsion from the impaired lower limb as its role in CoM propulsion is fostered by the rear position. Liu, H.

Gazendam, and W. Muscular strength, expressed in kg, was evaluated by means of the Lafayette dynamometer. No significant differences in MARP mean values were observed between the two groups in both stance and swing phases. Bloo, J. Access to Document

Figure 2. As a final speculation, subject perhaps beyond the scope of the present review, the potential role of non-invasive electric or magnetic brain stimulation can be alluded to. Although changes in the position of the foot and pelvis could presumably accompany changes in joints during human walking, keeping them constant in our model greatly narrows possible postural solutions. Means, standard deviations, and significance of the coordination parameters. Normative EMG activation patterns of school-age children during gait.

The mechanical role of definitoon flexors seems crucial, given that they are synchronous with the a increment of E totwhich is 3 to 4 times higher than the b increment at all velocities Figure 8A Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. References 1. Download other formats More. McKeon, G. Measurement of muscle health in aging.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits defiinition use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Obese adults walk with a wider support base and a lower speed, cadence, and stride length than normal people [ 67 ].

  • The height of the COM body at the standing posture was estimated using the same approach as in our average individual model following Winter [ 55 ].

  • Obese subjects and controls were then instructed to walk barefoot at a self-selected speed along the level surface.

  • The human form outline arbitrary size facilitates recognition of the spatial orientation of the figure. The results of this work shed light on the motor strategy adopted by obese individuals, which is aimed at maintaining body balance and at preserving a physiological inter-joint lower-limb coupling pattern.

  • Alberto Ranavolo, 1 Lorenzo M.

As locomotion is one of the most important and frequent tasks in daily life, gait has been extensively analyzed in previous studies; some of which demonstrated that obesity alters the body's motor scheme, in terms of moint, kinematic, and kinetic parameters [ 45 ]. Before [35]. Thus, in order to avoid the potential velocity bias, time-distance, kinematic, and coordination parameters were compared between obese subjects walking at self-selected speed and controls walking at low speed. Van Den Bogert, G. The nonparametric test Mann-Whitney was performed for non-Gaussian variables. CMC, that is, the positive square root of the adjusted coefficient of multiple determination [ 3738 ], is a measure of the overall waveform similarity of a group of curves; the closer to 1 the CMC is, the more similar the waveforms are. Stergiou, U.

Second, extremely simple and affordable techniques, such as those based on wearable accelerometers, might provide a rough quantitative analysis coordinatiom the CoM motion, sufficient to help monitoring progress during a rehabilitation program in any clinical environment. These studies show that appropriate modeling of positive work i. Clinical Biomechanics. A new model predicting locomotor cost from limb length via force production.

In contrast, no relationship between body size and posture was detected among cats Felidae [ 30 ] or elephants Elephantidae [ 31 ], despite great variation in body size in both samples fold and seven-fold body size range, respectively. Nantel, M. One practical reason is that parallel independent platforms are needed to record joint moments and torque during left and right leg stance, and platforms which allow at least one entire stride are required for the double-integration recording of CoM motion.

The Obsee curves show that the pattern in obese subjects is topologically similar to that of controls see Figure 2 and in Table 5. Yen, and H. Fowler and E. From a kinematic point of view, obese subjects displayed a substantial similarity in the angle curves of the pelvis and lower-limb joints within the gait cycle see Figure 1.

Keywords: walking, body center of mass, pathological gaits, system approach, gait rehabilitation. Ergometric evaluation of pathological gait. Lower limb length manipulation caused no changes in ankle height or foot length. For coordinative patterns, similar to what was reported by Chang et al. A huge amount of research, a true odyssey 1has been dedicated to the physiology of human walking. Dierks, R. Cavagna GA, Franzetti P.

Data were smoothed using a triangular four-order window filter. Lorenzo M. Data were smoothed using a triangular four-order window filter. Meardon, T. This altered gait pattern is probably related to an increased need for stabilization caused by obesity.

The study was approved by the local ethics committee and conformed to the Helsinki declarations. References [17] M. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait. Indeed, although we adopted strategies to minimize the likelihood of errors, marker trajectory anomalies, especially in pelvis markers, which are subject to movement-induced oscillations due to the excess fat at the waist, cannot be ruled out. Related articles.

Whatever the reasons, reverting the tendency lwoer retain asymmetry seems an appropriate goal, yet a very difficult challenge, for rehabilitation medicine. The second parameter is the deviation phase DPwhich joint coordination pattern calculated by averaging the standard deviations of the ensemble CRP curve points for both the stance and the swing phases: DP provides a measure of stability of the organization of the neuromuscular system. Forefoot, rearfoot and shank coupling: effect of variations in speed and mode of gait. A more symmetrical gait after split-belt treadmill walking increases the effort in paretic plantar flexors in people post-stroke. Limping on split-belt treadmills implies opposite kinematic and dynamic lower limb asymmetries. As for adults, symmetric impairments in children does not result in sharp differences in CoM motion compared with controls

The model is not significant at later stance events, peak hip extension moment H-extand peak knee extension moment K-extand at obese subjects definition ankle events. The main obstacles to clinical applications of gait analysis, in the authors' coordinstion, are neither the cost nor the technical skills required. The CoM of a distribution of mass is the unique point in space whose linear acceleration is determined only by the total external force acting on the system, without effects due to internal forces Hausdorff and F. The duration number of frames of each of the four coordination patterns was determined for the three stance periods. The development of mature gait. Since an altered coordination pattern may induce joint diseases and falls risk, the aim of this study was to analyze whether and how coordination during walking is affected by obesity.

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