In contrast, tenants who can choose between deli and organic markets have more possibilities to eat healthier. This use of a obesigy dataset of routine data reduces the risk of sampling bias and increases the obesogenic factors of obesity to detect meaningful associations between exposure and change in the outcome. Although eating fast food has been shown to increase caloric intake and the risk of becoming obese, 47 — 49 it is not as clear that living or working closer to fast-food restaurants has the same effect. S; just behind tobacco Mokdad, et al. One study that followed more than 5, young adults for 20 years found that lower prices on soda and pizza were associated with higher caloric intake and increased weight. Figure 1.
In which population groups are food and physical activity environments related to obesity? See A picture of overweight and obesity in Australia for more information on obesogenic environments.
In addition, we stratified the included studies by mode of measurement and continent of origin. Although land use mix and urban sprawl were more consistently associated with overweight or obesity than other physical environmental factors, the evidence remains weak and the nature of associations between the physical environment and weight status needs further study.
For instance, only three of the included papers 2.
Int J Obes.
Create citation alert. Obesity has been linked to various chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer NIH,
Physical activity across the life stages.
Google Scholar. Additionally, the use of administrative units may be ill-suited to examine environmental effects on health.
Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.
J Am Plan Assoc. The mechanism of action of the environmental influence includes the serotonergic system and insulin resistance.
For example, if eight ratings were given, strong was attributed to those with no weak ratings and at least five strong ratings, moderate was given to those with one weak rating obesogenic factors fewer than five strong ratings and weak was attributed to those with two or more weak ratings. This publication shows many counties lack health and nutrition programs and how Strengths of the present review are the adherence to essential criteria for literature reviews suggested by Ding and Gebel [ 12 ], the systematic assessment of methodological quality of the primary studies and the inclusion of articles that have been published since previous reviews. Obesity prevention is a global public health priority as a result of the worldwide increase in obesity prevalence [ 1 ] and its associated chronic diseases [ 2 ]. Feng et al. Public Health Nutr ;
Some work is already underway. Ounces of prevention—the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages. They have also examined broader societal influences on individual food choices, from food marketing to government policies. On the basis of a nationally representative survey, we found that the higher summer temperature, PM 2. These differences can be seen in groups of people with the same racial or ethnic background and even within families. Both general and abdominal obesity in men were associated with the highest PM 2.
Kawalek A, Pawlas K. However, the evidence base is inundated with different approaches, methods, metrics and environmental variables, making comparison between studies difficult [ 5 ], the search for unequivocal obesogehic elusive and the obesity of evidence into policy near impossible. J Nepal Health Res Counc ; Ann Behav Med. The fact that this extensive review showed minimal evidence for an association between characteristics of the built environment and weight status indicates that we still do not fully understand the complex relations involved. The latest results, however, that come from Germany, give new evidence for the hypothesis. Obesity and its risk factors of among school children in Sylhet, Bangladesh.
Participants in clinical trials
The CCDRFS is an official, successive nationally representative survey conducted every three years sinceaiming facyors monitor the epidemic of major chronic diseases and related risk factors in China. The improved study design and more and better data are needed to further investigate these associations. Children and adolescents need enough nutritious food to grow and develop normally. Marlene Rebori. Cheap food policy: Fact or rhetoric?
Heal Place. Kawalek A, Pawlas K. The authors evaluated the quality of previous literature reviews on built environment, physical activity and obesity based on: 1 the age and fachors demographic characteristics of the population, 2 the morbidly obese height weight chart frame for the literature search, 3 the total number of articles included, 4 data sources, 5 whether the methodological quality of the primary studies was assessed, 6 whether the measurement mode of the characteristics of the physical environment was reported, 7 whether the outcome was defined, and 8 whether the measurement mode of the outcome was reported. Ital J Public Health ; However, as we outline, there are several notable strengths that can be taken from this article in future research.
Recent Advances in Obesity in Children [Internet]. The quality assessment tool we used is presented in full in Additional file 2. Physical obesogenic factors determinants were categorized into four domains: 1 Physical activity environment, referring to physical activity opportunities, 2 Food environment, referring to food purchasing opportunities, 3 transport opportunities and 4 other e. We hope these strengths are recognised and will be considered and incorporated in the development of future research, where feasible. Journal of the American Medical Association10 Consequently, we aim to provide an updated review of the literature on physical environmental correlates of adult weight status. The Lancet :
The current state of evidence
Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Epidemiol Rev. About this article Cite this article Mackenbach, J.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Table 1 Characteristics obesogenic factors of obesity included studies Full obesoogenic table. Since obesity is influenced by genetically transmitted changes modulated by environment and lifestyle risk factors it is important to understand the genomic mechanism that allows these interactions. There is no consensus as to whether one should judge the representativeness on the response rate, on the sample size or on the characteristics of the sample. About this article.
Having access to healthy foods as well as obesity that promote an increase obesogenicc physical activity may help improve the adoption of a healthy lifestyle and decrease the impacts of obesity. Physical activity The human body expends energy in 3 ways: basal metabolism the energy used to maintain vital body processes thermic processes the energy taken to digest and absorb food physical activity the energy used to move around.
However, there are also a number of limitations to this systematic literature review.
Google Scholar. Adiposity is a serious health burden, not only in a physical but also in a psychological way: obese people often suffer mentally caused by stigmatization and discrimination.
CAS Google Scholar. While sufficient food is produced to meet the dietary energy requirements of the global population, agricultural systems favour staple crops including rice, maize and wheat and fail to produce sufficient global supply of pulses, fruits and vegetables to meet recommended population-level intakes.
The physical and psychological consequences of obesity are well documented, including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, adverse cardiovascular outcomes, discrimination and reduced self-esteem. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
Obesogenic factors influencing overweight among Asian children obesogeenic youth. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. In addition, we stratified the included studies by mode of measurement and continent of origin. BMC Public Health. There may, however, be a number of additional explanations for this lack of consistent associations. Obes Silver Spring.
Fourth, obesogfnic to lack of previous obesogenic environmental research and consequently limited knowledge of determinants of obesity in China, some associations might be driven by different mechanisms than what were explained above, such as the positive association between regional education level and obesity. Right now, he is looking for funding opportunities to collaborate with the IFB Adipositas. For example, do residents in a community have access to affordable fresh fruits and vegetables? Rosenheck R. Overall, the ORs for obesity showed a monotonic increase with the increasing number of coexisting obesogenic environment factors in men.
Gleason P, et al. However, the influence of full-service restaurants on obesity may be limited, as their association became non-significant when using a higher cutoff of BMI to define obesity i. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, b.
Acknowledgements Not applicable. Lastly, the excluded participants 4. Right now, he is oobesity for funding opportunities obesogenic factors of obesity collaborate with the IFB Adipositas. Please wait… references are loading. Not surprisingly, a recent review of published studies found a strong association between the availability of fruits and vegetables at home and whether children, adolescents, and adults eat these foods.
This dose-response relationship also held true in women, but the increasing trend of ORs was less steep. Obesity and economic environments. Dissecting obesogenic environments; the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Alvanides explains.
Lbesity is why geographers and sports scientists tend to use modern GPS tracker technologies to document morbidly obese height weight chart exact movements and likely food intakes of a person. Hopkins S. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India. How healthy is competitive food served at primary school canteen in Malaysia? The impact of exposure to environmental variables in a neighbourhood, area or place may differ between individuals , so previous studies might have misclassified relevant study areas.
A systems approach to obesity. J Public Heal. Reed M. Gardner, G.
This fact sheet will define obesogenic environment. With different living environments, urban-rural residence has potential to modify the roles in obesity of factors such as climate and food environments. Marlene Rebori. Participants living in communal residence or with severe diseases that might impede the progression of interview were excluded. December 11, The research field "obesogenic environments" helps to understand how environmental factors determine obesity. Obesity is a serious public health problem because it is associated with some of the leading causes of death in the U.
Ding D, Gebel K: Built environment, physical activity, and obesity: what have we learned from reviewing the literature?. The U. Retrieved from: CDC. Additional file 4: Quality assessment of the included studies.
Health Aff Millwood. Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit, Michigan.
Healthy Places Terminology. Reprints and Permissions.
We observed the cumulative effects of multiple environmental factors, as evidenced by the dose-response relationships between the number of obesogenic environmental factors and obesity. This publication shows many counties lack health and nutrition programs and how
The effect of Westernization was seen in four cities of India and China. As the current review assessed the quality of the reviewed studies based on obesity was reported in the original publications - and it may be that not all relevant information regarding the quality criteria was reported - lower scores on the quality assessment may not necessarily reflect a low quality of the study but might merely have been a lack of reported detail in the paper. Consent for publication Not applicable. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity. Skip to main content.
BMC Med. Results After duplicates were removed, 5, articles were screened on title and abstract by the first author. Subsequently, a o sample of titles and abstracts was also screened by the second author; full articles were read by the first and second author. Prev Med. The mechanism of action of the environmental influence includes the serotonergic system and insulin resistance. Powell, P.
Participants in clinical trials
Hobb M, McKenna J. Rosenheck R. PHE Am J Clin Nutr. The results of the study show that there are actually more fast-food places in the less affluent areas.
The annual mean fine particulate matter PM 2. Obesogeni researchers have argued that subsidies to corn growers have led to an oversupply of cheap high-fructose corn syrup, which drives higher sweetener consumption. Download PDF. Neighbourhood fruit and vegetable availability and consumption: the role of small food stores in an urban environment. What is Obesogenic Environment? Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools—selected sites, United States, In: Adipositas, Heft 1,S.
Davis B, Carpenter C. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Sincethe prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries [ 1 ]. For example, cold weather could stimulate our appetite for energy-dense food and hot weather may tempt us to have more sugar-sweetened beverage and ice cream. According to the World Health Organization WHOthe global prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled during and Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
Abstract The aim of this fadtors was to identify and, particularly, to classify all the numerous environmental factors that play a significant role in the environment-dependent body weight dysregulation. Furthermore, it would advance the field if more emphasis were placed on the difference between causation and correlation. The first table presents studies from North America, Australasia, and Europe. Additional information Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interest. Family and neighborhood correlates of overweight and obesogenic behaviors among Chinese children. Factors associated with regular consumption of obesogenic foods: National school-based student health survey,
They include the various inputs e. In Europe, five [, ] out of twelve studies investigated the role of green space in the risk for overweight or obesity. Diel, J.
In addition, we revealed that both higher summer temperature and lower winter temperature were associated with increased obesity risk, which supported the notion that physical activity could be more discouraged by extreme temperatures at both ends and obesogenic factors of obesity consistent with the previous finding in the US [ 37 ]. Challenge the conventional. Considering the degree of healthiness of food available in each type of food outlets and most findings in western countries, we hypothesized that higher density of western fast-food restaurants and groceries and lower density of full-service restaurants and supermarkets were associated with obesity [ 14 ]. A complex web surrounds a basic problem. Clustering of fast-food restaurants around schools: a novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
In high-income countries such as Australia, interventions to date have largely employed individual-level approaches to promote healthy choices and prevent obesity.
Foods that are lacking in the Western diet-whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and nuts-seem to help with weight control, and also help prevent chronic disease.
J Health Res Rev ;
It is now recognized that external factors, such as distance to a grocery store, parks, urban sprawl and neighborhood safety concerns may contribute to the ability to obesogenic factors a healthy weight. Unhealthy food marketing, for example, is driven at the societal level by economics. Epidemiol Rev. This use of a large dataset of routine data reduces the risk of sampling bias and increases the power to detect meaningful associations between exposure and change in the outcome. Comparison of studies that used both objective measures and perceptions of the environment was hampered by to the fact that different dimensions are assessed with these measurement modes. Obesity and its risk factors of among school children in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Built vs.
Search all BMC articles Obesity. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is a food selection guide that visually represents the proportion of the five food groups recommended for consumption each day. Rockville, MD: U. Retrieved from: CDC. The positive association of grocery stores with obesity found in this study was consistent with our hypothesized direction observed in many studies [ 143943 ], although some other study found no association [ 44 ]. In Marchthe Center for Science in the Public Interest issued a report card grading the strength of the voluntary food marketing policies of food and entertainment companies. The prevelance of obesity has increased during the last years.
Transp Res Part a-Policy Pract. Environmental influences on behaviour and health: a call for creativity and radical shifts in thinking within contemporary research. The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing tremendously in the world. Am Sociol Rev.
ElBoghdady D. MLA Overweight and obesity: an interactive insight. Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic. Darmon N, Drewnowski A. In the U. Public Health Nutr.
Other European studies did not provide clear evidence about any physical environmental factors associated with overweight or obesity. Familial factors comprise parenting style and socioeconomic status. Obesogeic sprawl was studied in twelve studies none of the European studies, 1 Australian study and 11 North American studies : eight reported on significant associations in the expected direction more urban sprawl was related to more obesityand four reported no association. Study time after school and habitual eating are associated with risk for obesity among overweight Korean children: A Prospective study. However, there are numerous potential correlates of obesity from the physical environment and it is plausible that many other environmental factors such as access to recreation areas, proximity to fast food outlets or the presence of walking and cycling infrastructure might influence weight status through their links to food and physical activity behavior [ 14 — 17 ].
Darmon N, Drewnowski A. The research field "obesogenic environments" helps to understand how environmental factors determine obesity. Other fsctors have compared obese and non-obese people for variation in genes that could influence behaviors such as a drive to overeat, or a tendency to be sedentary or metabolism such as a diminished capacity to use dietary fats as fuel, or an increased tendency to store body fat.
These associations were also observed in women except for summer temperature and density of full-service restaurants with abdominal obesity.
Additional file 4: Quality assessment of the included studies.
Article Google Scholar 8.
Duffey KJ, et al. There continues to be growing interest in the environmental determinants of health outcomes and health behaviours.
Using the family to combat childhood and adult obesity. In Marchthe Center for Science in the Public Interest issued a report card grading the strength of the voluntary food marketing policies of food and entertainment companies.
Our results may be affected by other environmental factors, such as density obesogenicc and proximity to street vendors and wet markets, which, however, obesogenic factors at present difficult to be accurately measured in China due to a large area and the limited data infrastructure. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is a food selection guide that visually represents the proportion of the five food groups recommended for consumption each day. Federal Trade Commission. Some other factors should be considered in future studies to identify mechanisms through which natural environments affect obesity risk. Health promotion, education, and behavior associate professor Andrew Kaczynski co-chairs Active Living Conference.
Dissecting obesogenic environments; the development and application of a framework for identifying obesogeni prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. MH led the write up obesogenic factors of obesity the publication with the support of DR. Prev Med Baltim. On the basis that environments are likely to be very different in high income countries from those in middle or low income countries, in this review we have focused on studies that were conducted in high income countries. Public Health Nutr. A recent review of reviews identified a number of gaps and areas for improvement that could explain some of the inconsistencies in the findings about obesogenic environments [ 12 ]. Without a sufficient, up-to-date understanding of the roles of basic obesogenic environmental factors in obesity, the uncertainties will propagate and lead to more uncertainties in the association between indicators and obesity.
About this article Cite this article Obesitu, J. Although land use mix and urban sprawl were more consistently associated with overweight or obesity than other physical environmental factors, the evidence remains weak and the nature of associations between the physical environment and weight status needs further study. Health Technol Assess. Glob Health Action ; Of these 17 studies, nine studies examined both the objective and the perceived environment.
Having access to healthy foods as well as areas that promote an increase in physical activity may help improve obesity adoption of obesityy healthy lifestyle and decrease the impacts of obesity. Methods We have conducted an updated review of the scientific literature on associations of physical environmental factors with adult weight status, stratified by continent and mode of measurement, accompanied by a detailed risk-of-bias assessment. The research field "obesogenic environments" helps to understand how environmental factors determine obesity. This equates to That is why geographers and sports scientists tend to use modern GPS tracker technologies to document the exact movements and likely food intakes of a person.
This obbesity report provides interactive graphs showing the prevalence of overweight and obesity, differences in the prevalence between population groups obesity what is happening over time. The relationship between our health and the environment or places in which we reside and work, day to day, dates back centuries. In addition, urban residents can do exercise in gyms when climate is less pleasant, while this is less possible for rural residents who live in areas with little to no gyms. Berkeley Media Studies Group. Prev Med. There continues to be growing interest in the environmental determinants of health outcomes and health behaviours. J Nutr.
The current state of evidence
Accepted : 19 February Beghin J, Jensen H. This fact sheet will define obesogenic environment. Does our body-weight tell us also something about our living-environment? Author e-mails.
Environmental and societal factors affect food choice and physical activity: rationale, influences, and leverage points. Those changes can obesty the health of family members—and improve the family health history of the next generation. Indeed, using global positioning systems to track movement has indicated that research often assumes that children and adults are less mobile than they really are. Article Google Scholar 2.
Health Promot Int ; Results After duplicates were removed, 5, articles were screened on title obesogenic factors of obesity abstract by the first author. Baker P and Friel S Stratification by mode of measurement did not reveal consistent differences between studies that used objective measures versus perceptions of the environment. World Health Organization. Abuzaid O. While effects were often small, these are likely to be meaningful in effect size when considered at a population level.
Am J Clin Nutr. Health promotion, education, and behavior associate professor Andrew Kaczynski co-chairs Active Living Conference. Geographers suggest that there are so-called "obesogenic environments" that can influence both nutrition and physical activity, and as a result, the body mass index BMI of residents in certain neighborhoods.
A complex web surrounds a basic problem. Institute of Medicine. Department of Agriculture. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, b. Using the family to combat childhood and adult obesity.
Food Stamp Program participation but not food insecurity is associated with higher adult BMI in Massachusetts residents living in low-income neighbourhoods. The gross domestic product GDP per capita was obtained from the statistical communique of national economic and social development in
This study described the obesogenic factors influencing overweight among Asian children and youth.
Of the existing policies, a majority applied only weak nutrition standards to their marketing efforts. Download references.
In particular, these cumulative effects were relatively weaker among women. Food Policy.
In: Adipositas, Heft 1,S.
Epidemiologic Reviews29, Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition. Obesity M, Brown C, Dukas S: A national study of the association between food environments and county-level health outcomes. The Lancet, Colours, flavours, emulsifiers and other additives are frequently added to make the final product hyper-palatable. It is now recognized that external factors, such as distance to a grocery store, parks, urban sprawl and neighborhood safety concerns may contribute to the ability to maintain a healthy weight.
BMC Med. The remaining three studies also used different definitions of green space. How food ads communicate 'health' with children: A content analysis of Korean television commercials. The physical environment was defined as all built environmental and transport related factors [ 5 ].
Abstract The aim of this review was to identify and, particularly, to classify all the numerous environmental factors that play a significant role in the environment-dependent body weight dysregulation. Although land use mix and urban sprawl were more consistently associated with overweight or obesity than other physical environmental factors, the evidence remains weak and the nature of associations between the physical environment and weight status needs further study. Soc Sci Med. Geographers suggest that there are so-called "obesogenic environments" that can influence both nutrition and physical activity, and as a result, the body mass index BMI of residents in certain neighborhoods. Shapiro,Nader G.
He is confident with regard to the further development of this research field as, finally, it becomes more interdisciplinary and brings together scientists from different disciplines to work together on the causes of obesity. Sci Rep ; PLoS One ;e Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary school children in Hai Phong city, Vietnam.
While the causes of excess weight gain are complex, most researchers agree that obesity occurs when more calories are consumed than expended i. CA Cancer J Clin. Following these recommendations and limiting the number of energy-dense, nutrient-poor discretionary foods and drinks is the best way to maintain a healthy weight. The latest results, however, that come from Germany, give new evidence for the hypothesis. Despite this widespread recognition of the negative impact of marketing unhealthy foods, the practice continues unabated. Lack of sleep -another hallmark of the Western lifestyle-is also emerging as a risk factor for obesity. Several areas require stronger policy recommendations, however, such as the need to eliminate the aggressive marketing of unhealthy foods to children.
An example of a systems approach in the US city of Baltimore incorporated the following key components: 9. J Nepal Health Res Counc ; All authors commented on and approved the final manuscript. J Health Res Rev ; Lopez RP: Neighborhood risk factors for obesity. The remaining three studies also used different definitions of green space.
Thus, the obesogenic factors of obesity the distance to the green area, the lower is the BMI; this effect was particularly evident among female participants. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Jan Eberth leads study assessing geographic availability of low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening. And healthy lifestyles can counteract these genetic effects. To find out more, see our Privacy and Cookies policy.
J Heal Econ. Obesity is a public health dilemma worldwide. Kleinert S and Obesogenic factors of obesity R. One study from the Obesoenic showed that land use mix was not significantly associated with overweight or obesity [ ]. Thirty-one studies assessed urban form characteristics such as street connectivity, urban sprawl and land use mix, and twenty studies investigated other types of environmental factors such as graffiti or crime. Transp Res Part a-Policy Pract.
There continues to be growing interest in the morbidly obese height weight chart determinants of health outcomes and health behaviours. Guldan GS. This could include taking into account interactions of objective measures and perceptions, the effect of mediators and moderators, and the complexity of conceptual models. Reprints and Permissions. J Epidemiol Community Heal. Public Heal Nutr. Studies can have between six and eight component ratings.
Of note, the authors assigned area characteristics on an annual basis except for walkability to maximise the relevance of estimated exposures.
Only eight studies used longitudinal data.
Duffey KJ, et al. Nevertheless, the variation in how people respond to the same environment suggests that genes do play a role in the development of obesity.
What is Oebsogenic Environment? New study approaches also consider the factor "living environment". Fifteen studies assessed associations between both food related and obesogenic factors of obesity activity related environments and obesity. Download PDF. After duplicates were removed, 5, articles were screened on title and abstract by the first author. Two environmental measures were relatively consistently and statistically significantly associated with overweight status or BMI; urban sprawl and land use mix.
Additional file 3: Flowchart. Television food advertising in Singapore: The nature and extent of children's exposure. BMI is based upon height and weight. Longitudinal obesogenic factors of obesity studies and natural experiments have ov advantage of allowing for temporal associations, while accounting for residential self-selection endogeneity [ 73 ] may also be possible in cross-sectional study designs. Studies relating a physical environmental factor to BMI, overweight or obesity in adults were considered if published between January and May in Dutch, English, French or German language. Influences of food advertisement were studied in Korea, Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia.
Download citation. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This narrative review obtained thirty-four pertinent articles published between and Environmental influences on behaviour and health: a call for creativity and radical shifts in thinking within contemporary research.
Received : 16 October Articles of studies were excluded if they: focused primarily on socioeconomic characteristics or the social environment of a geographic area assessed a physical environmental factor only as a potential confounder had a very specific target population that would lead to non-generalizable results e. Environ Behav. The first table presents studies from North America, Australasia, and Europe. Colours, flavours, emulsifiers and other additives are frequently added to make the final product hyper-palatable.
Ethn Dis. As sex may modify associations between environmental factors and obesity [ 29 — 31 ], all analyses were conducted in men and women separately.
Strengths and limitations Strengths of the present review are the adherence to essential criteria for literature reviews suggested by Ding and Gebel [ 12 ], the systematic assessment of methodological quality of the primary studies and the inclusion of articles that have been published since previous reviews.
Skip to content Obesity Prevention Source. One study that followed more than 5, young adults for 20 years found that lower prices on soda and pizza were associated with higher caloric intake and increased weight.
It may also be necessary to more critically assess the methods used for assessing obesity and subjective measures of the environment. Numerous reviewed articles identified obesogenic factors influencing overweight among Asian children and youth as follows: familial factors, food retail environment, Westernization, food advertisement, and unhealthy food choices in school.
Alvanides is a health geographer and teaches at Northumbria University in Newcastle.
The obfsity of longitudinal data should also be recognised, since many research studies can only aspire to such longitudinal exposure measures. Abstract Background Understanding which physical environmental factors affect adult obesity, and how best to influence them, is important for public health and urban planning. Retrieved from: CDC. Article Google Scholar 8. Download PDF. A relatively simple quality assessment may not be capable of discerning the factors that differentiate these more sophisticated approaches. J Reg Sci.
Beside the analytical examination of the obesogenic factors it is mentioned the cumulative effect that tends obeesity coexist in the same population and thus magnify their pathogenic consequences. The ratings for each of the eight domains, as well as the total rating, were compared between the two assessors. We add to the existing literature by stratifying articles by continent and mode of measurement. In Europe, five [, ] out of twelve studies investigated the role of green space in the risk for overweight or obesity. Epidemiol Rev.
The U. General and abdominal factorz were defined by body mass index and waist circumference, obesity, according to both the Chinese and international criteria. Epidemiologic Reviews29, Swinburn, B. The use of longitudinal data should also be recognised, since many research studies can only aspire to such longitudinal exposure measures.
Download references. Poortinga W: Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity. Two factors, urban sprawl and land use mix, were found consistently associated with weight status, although only in North America. Beside the analytical examination of the obesogenic factors it is mentioned the cumulative effect that tends to coexist in the same population and thus magnify their pathogenic consequences. Subsequently, a random sample of titles and abstracts was also screened by the second author; full articles were read by the first and second author. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
A study offered further evidence that inexpensive obesogenic factors of obesity is a key factor in rising obesity rates. In fact, obexogenic environments are not independent but rather tend to coexist in the same area, thus they may work in combination to promote obesity. Visit eatforhealth. These studies have identified variants in several genes that may contribute to obesity by increasing hunger and food intake. The associations of PM 2. Being physically active throughout life helps to promote health and wellbeing and prevent chronic disease.
The impact of PM 2. To successfully disentangle them will take a multifaceted approach that not only gives individuals the skills to make healthier choices but also sets in place policy and infrastructure that support those choices. Those changes can improve the health of family members—and improve the family health history of the next generation. After removing heavy clothes and shoes, height, weight, and WC were measured by trained personnel with standardized techniques and protocols to nearest 0. Actual causes of death in the United States, In fact, obesogenic environments are not independent but rather tend to coexist in the same area, thus they may work in combination to promote obesity.
In contrast to basic obesogenic environmental factors, obesoogenic example of mixed environmental factor is neighbourhood safety, which is a complex measure of night light, crime rate, traffic volume, speed limit, smoothness of roads and many other factors of injury. One important category of determinants is the opportunities for calorie intake and calorie expenditure or a lack thereof in the physical environment. In addition, more than one obesogenic factors are present in the same population because they are the expression of another underlying common cause - poverty; such a recognition leads towards socio-economic considerations and consequently towards 'political' solutions that are beyond our scientific approach. Health Place. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. The study also determined the association of these factors to children and youth weight status.
Oka M, Link CL, Kawachi I: Area-based variations in obesity are more than a function of the food and physical activity environment: area-based variations in obesity. Obesity Silver Spring. FRes ;
Obesity and economic environments. First, we only examined associations with obesity of those commonly studied obesogenic environmental factors in western countries, without intention to be inclusive with all potential factors added in. Addict Behav. Get citations as an Endnote file : Endnote. Physical activity across the life stages.
Additionally, obesity was associated with the increasing number of coexisting obesogenic environmental factors.
Ital J Public Health ;
They found that obesogenic counties were more prevalent in the South, compared to the Northwest, Midwest, and West regions.
Skip to main content. Our findings call for more attention to citizens living in certain environments in China, such as cold winters and with more full-service restaurants and grocery stores.
The variation was translated into the median odds ratio i. The crude prevalences of general, obesogenoc, and concurring obesity, according to the Obesogenic factors of obesity criteria of obesity, were Fruit and vegetable availability: a micro environmental mediating variable? Also, the variation of the associations between the obesogenic environment and obesity in urban and rural regions may imply different practices and policies to mitigate obesity risk in different contexts. Genetic and environmental factors also play a role. Preventive Medicine —
For example, if a community has unsafe walking paths, i. One study from the UK showed that land use mix was not significantly associated obesogenic factors of obesity overweight or obesity [ ]. Table 1 Characteristics of included studies Full size table. J Urban Econ. Without a sufficient, up-to-date understanding of the roles of basic obesogenic environmental factors in obesity, the uncertainties will propagate and lead to more uncertainties in the association between indicators and obesity. Third, the comparison between strong, moderate and weak articles in terms of finding results consistent with the hypothesis may have been hindered by publication or reporting bias. It is now recognized that external factors, such as distance to a grocery store, parks, urban sprawl and neighborhood safety concerns may contribute to the ability to maintain a healthy weight.
Obesogenic television food advertising to children in Malaysia: Sociocultural variations. The study also determined the association of these factors to children and youth weight status. This is important because longitudinal designs can address residential self-selection bias by establishing temporality [ 10 ]; accounting — for instance — for residential relocation that may be triggered by events such as marriage or employment changes, which may also influence health-related behaviours and subsequent health outcomes [ 10 ].
In terms of confounding five pf were rated as moderate and one as weak as these studies did not adjust for income. Res Sports Med ; Original obesity that examined associations between physical environmental characteristics and adult weight status were reviewed. The quality assessment tool we used is presented in full in Additional file 2. Conclusions We systematically assessed the methodological quality of the included studies and took this quality into account in the review and interpretation of the evidence. Mokdad, A.
Researchers develop comprehensive index for assessing environmental factors that promote, deter obesity. Studies of resemblances and obesity among family members, twins, and adoptees offer indirect scientific evidence that a sizable portion of the variation in weight among adults is due to genetic factors. Create the exceptional. Berkeley Media Studies Group. Built environments and obesity in disadvantaged populations. Health effects of overweight and obesity in countries over 25 years. Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut.
Obesity and its causes have, in many ways, become woven into the fabric of our society. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ReportVol. American Beverage Association. Metrics details.