Role of resistin in obesity, insulin resistance and abd II diabetes. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. PubMed Google Scholar 6. Waalen J. Relationship of resistin levels with endometrial cancer risk. Circulating resistin levels are decreased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, and increased in diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity.
Diabetes Obes Metab.
Thus, the concept of PCOS involves multiple systems in the body and goes beyond the endocrinal and gynecological definitions to cover a broad array of conditions. DeFronzo, R.
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Which primary cell models for obesity and diabetes?
Bu, J. Diab Care — Although present in gross visceral fat deposits in humans, resistin is a component of inflammation, being released from infiltrating white blood cells of the sub-clinical chronic low grade inflammatory response accompanying obesity, rather than from the adipocyte itself.
An inflammatory cascade leading to hyperresistinemia in humans. Citing articles via Web of Science Reprints and Permissions. The mean WC was
Yin, J. Cell — American Journal of Physiology. Mol Endocrinol 16 : — J Cell Mol Med. Nature73—76
The population was lean BMI Eur J Endocrinol : — Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. The story of the resistin family of adipokines is very much of mice and men. Testosterone AMH Inhibin.
The americans suffer from of evidence supporting the resistin link theory between obesity and Obeslty is vast. With these adjustments, we again found no association between resistin and markers of adiposity or insulin resistance, lipid levels, or hormone levels Table 2. Since then, it became apparent that the story of resistin and RELMs was very much of mice and men.
Resistin is a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes that is present at high levels in sera of obese mice and resistin gene and obesity be involved in glucose homeostasis through regulation of insulin sensitivity. Among blinded duplicate genotype pairs, one discrepancy was observed. Maximum weight kg. A third study 8 in isolated human adipocytes confirmed Genotype distributions and allele frequencies in obese, these results.
Agonists: Leptin Metreleptin. Additionally, we previously found no association between serum resistin levels and either total energy resistin gene and obesity macronutrient intake 28and a recent study, using the same resistin ELISA as in our studies, found no difference in serum resistin levels between insulin-resistant nondiabetic partial lipodystrophy patients and healthy controls Vitam Horm. We thank D. Cell 4— FEBS Lett : — Barak, Y.
More studies are needed to verify these hypotheses in the future.
Obes Res 11 8 —
And the data were converted to uniform units as needed. PubMed Google Scholar.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. Lbesity result suggests that processing of the intertrimer disulfide bonds may reflect a mandatory step toward activation. Article Google Scholar. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries, — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Over sixty years ago, a centrally-acting circulating factor was postulated to be involved in a negative feedback cascade to limit the intake of food and energy. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance IRis a complex chronic disorder of which the prevalence increased markedly in recent years DeFronzo et al. Spiegelman, B.
If the address matches an existing account you will resistin gene and an email with instructions to reset your password. In conclusion, our results from a sample of Finnish Type 2 diabetes cases and controls provide evidence that non-coding variants in the resistin gene are associated with variation in obesity and insulin resistance, which are two traits that predispose individuals to Type 2 diabetes. Fig 7. Resistin is expressed in pancreatic islets. Cases were unrelated individuals with Type 2 diabetes, almost all from families with at least two recruited Type 2 diabetes siblings. However, results have been inconsistent. In order to explore the sources of heterogeneity, we performed subgroup analysis.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article
Horm Metab Res 36 10 — Therefore, we hypothesized that resistin might also play a role in insulin resistance, possibly providing new therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. S1 Table. Resistin: molecular history and prognosis. BMC Genet
Inhibin B, activin A, and follistatin and the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of Resistin gene and obesity subjects were studied. Nevertheless, a substantial number of studies have failed to find correlations between resistin and insulin resistance Gerber et al. Copyright notice. However, our analysis of the DI assessed only in spouse controlswhich is used as an indicator of the ability of beta cells to compensate for insulin resistance, did yield marginal evidence of an association. To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Because of the large number of comparisons a total of 18 for cases, 23 for spouses and 16 for elderly controls we performed permutation tests to estimate the probability of observing a similar number of associated traits due to chance alone.
View Metrics. Diabetes Care 21 S1 : S5 — S Clin Endocrinol Oxf. Chronic inflammation is a major and well-known cause of obesity-induced insulin resistance Gregor and Hotamisligil,and several pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the process. J Endocrinol Invest. Clemens, MI.
KS and YL designed the program, searched and reviewed the studies, were in charge of the manuscript. Diabetes Metab. Buy or subscribe. Boden, G.
Enteroglucagon Peptide YY. Obesity E—E Wikimedia Commons. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are not related to resistin expression in human fat cells or skeletal muscle. Increased serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes are not linked with markers of insulin resistance and adiposity.
Eur J Endocrinol : —
Silander2, 3 L. Resistin levels were also significantly higher in obese PCOS women vs.
Endocrinology and Metabolism.
In non-Type 2 diabetes subjects, obesity and insulin resistance are normally balanced by increased insulin secretion [ 2728 ]. Luo, Z.
Relationship between insulin resistance and inflammatory markers and anti-inflammatory effect of losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Significant heterogeneity and gdne bias was evident for some analyses. The frequency of the GC allele was not fects of the resistin gene are unlikely to play a role in the significantly different among all groups. We thank G. Therefore, we included 15 studies with 20 groups, a total of 1, patients.
Results Search Results and Study Inclusion Initially, the literature search identified 3, potential studies. Smart citations by scite. Molecular human reproduction. Diabetes Res.
Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism. We then compared the pattern of trait associations in the permuted samples to the original cluster of traits significant at the 0. View Article Google Scholar Nagaev I, Smith U.
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Subjects egne their parents gave written informed consent to participate in the study. Resistin mRNA and protein expression are increased in abdominal fat depots 2338 and whole adipose tissue of obese individuals, but isolated human adipocytes have very low resistin mRNA levels Geneva: WHO; N Engl J Med : — This led researchers to further explore the functions of the resistin family of proteins in inflammatory-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, as well as in cancers such as endometrial and gastric cancers.
Nevertheless, a substantial number of studies tesistin failed to resistin gene and obesity correlations between resistin and insulin resistance Gerber et al. If your research is related to obesity and adipose tissueyou may be interested by the selection I have performed below of immunoassays including ELISA tests and antibody arraysas well as primary cell models related to this topic. Serum resistin and adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Genetic association studies of obesity in Africa: a systematic review.
Kensara OA. It has recently been reported that mice lacking the resistin gene resemble normal mice in most respects, including body weight, but have better glucose tolerance that stems from reduced hepatic glucose production [ 4 ]. Table 1. Table 3. Mohlke KL. S1 Checklist.
Obesity and Diabetes. Acta Physiol — Visceral fat accumulation, or white adipose tissue, resiistin been implicated as important risk factors not only for the development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus [ 5 ], but also for the development of other comorbid conditions such as dyslipidemia [ 6 ] and a plethora of conditions related to inflammatory dysregulation [ 7 — 9 ]. Received : 20 February
Steppan, C. PubMed eng. Heilbronn, L. Download citation. Studies in mice have revealed conflicting data however, and the physiological role of circulating resistin in humans remains unknown. Luo, Z.
Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Many studies indicated that multiple adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin were involved in the occurrence and development of insulin resistance, possibly associated with many complications Hara et al. Circulating resistin levels are decreased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, and increased in diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity. Moffett; and G. Furthermore, a tendency to form dimers as well as trimers has been shown, facilitated by Cys22 [ 53 ]. After reviewing all the studies with Pearson or Spearman coefficients together, we found a similar result to this analysis. Acknowledgements We thank D.
However, although rodent resistin was first described as an adipokine, its human counterpart resistin gene and obesity to be linked with inflammatory states within certain medical resixtin. Spiegelman, B. The effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on the plasma concentrations of resistin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Google Scholar 33 Hausdorff, S. Zaidi, S. Among them, 10 studies reported the correlations between resistin levels and IR with Pearson coefficients were used for further meta-analysis.
We then tested whether these SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes and related traits. It has and normal subjects. Chronic inflammation is a major and well-known cause of obesity-induced insulin resistance Gregor and Hotamisligil,and several pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the process. PLoS One.
The discovery that adipose tissue functioned as an endocrine gland sparked a new line of research into the structure and function of adipokines.
Variation in resistin gene promoter not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
The male:female ratios were similar, i. Metab Syndr Relat Disord —
Amino acid sequence and secondary structures of human and mouse resistin show differences in folding patterns between the two species. Nagaev I, Smith U Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are not related to resistin expression in human fat cells or skeletal muscle.
Besides, for patients with PCOS stratified by weight status obese versus leanthe results of individual studies regarding circulating resistin and follistatin were also inconsistent. Initially, the literature search identified 3, potential studies.
Gharibeh, M. Obesity, especially abdominal and visceral obesity, is commonly associated with, and may cause, insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes. We then tested whether these SNPs were associated with Type 2 diabetes and related traits. Angiology 65, 22— Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
The lancet. Previous studies have pointed out that resistin plays a role in pro-inflammatory processes. Resistin messenger-RNA expression is increased by proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. You can look at 4 to 40 factors in one single experiment, measuring proteins like adiponectin, leptin, insulin, resistin, prolactin… The list of arrays available for human tissue, and their respective list of targets, is available at this link. EMBO J 19 15 —
Brain — Instead, human resistin is primarily expressed in monocytic cells, from which it is secreted [ 50 ]. PubMed Central Google Scholar VAT will be added later in the checkout. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
The three admissions were scheduled at least 7 wk apart from each other to allow for return of body weight to baseline, avoidance of residual effects of administered r-metHuLeptin, and recovery of hematocrit.
Diabetes 58 3 —
Shuldiner AYang RGong D Resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance—the emerging role of the adipocyte as an endocrine organ. Diabetes Res.
Interestingly, in ovesity studies, no significant difference in the resistin gene and obesity of follistatin was observed in the follicular fluid from the polycystic and healthy ovaries [ 7576 ]. Diabet Med22 501 May Subscription will auto renew annually. S3 Table. Some are mainly produced by adipose tissue e. Browse Subject Areas?
Thus, the concept of PCOS involves multiple systems in the body and goes beyond the endocrinal and gynecological definitions to cover a broad array of conditions. Read article at amd site DOI : In addition, considering about the distribution of resistin in mononuclear cells in humans, inflammation might be the process which links resistin to insulin resistance. Stained with the neutral lipid dye Oil Red O. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The quality of studies was medium to high, with scores ranging from 4 to 8 S1 Table. Full text links Read article at publisher's site DOI :
We resistin gene and obesity the basic information anc author, year of publication, sample size, country and participant characteristics age, gender, BMI, fasting blood glucose, resistin, HOMA-IR, insulin from the articles. Nagaev I, Smith U Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are not related to resistin expression in human fat cells or skeletal muscle.
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Lancet — PubMed Google Scholar Download references.
Efforts have been made to sub-divide these adipokines into groups [ 20 ], and characterize their function both a calorie-rich and calorie-deprived environment [ 21 ]. Circulating resistin levels are decreased by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, and increased in diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity. Resistin levels did not differ significantly between the two groups 5. Gen Comp Endocrinol — Identification of RELMgamma, a novel resistin-like molecule with a distinct expression pattern. Reim and D. Hotamisligil GS The irresistible biology of resistin.
There were some studies with small sample sizes included obesitty the present analysis, possibly explaining the heterogeneity. Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. Resistin: Insulin resistance to malignancy. It is highly abundant in and solely produced in white adipose tissue [ 39 ]. Administration of anti-resistin antibody improves blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity. Article Google Scholar.
Adjustment for BMI where appropriate had no effect on the observed pattern of trait associations; resitin, only sex- and age-adjusted p values are reported in Table 3. Saudi Med. One possible explanation for these seemingly contradictory findings is that resistin expression may be inhibited by insulin and other factors related to obesity [ 89 ]. Meta-regression of correlations between insulin resistance and resistin. Ovary: Follistatin concentrations in follicular fluid of normal and polycystic ovaries.
Regardless of body mass index BMI reaistin, excess adiposity and elevated secretion of adipokines from adipocytes might be a linkage between the IR and resistin gene and obesity disturbances [ 9 ]. Many studies indicated that multiple adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin were involved in the occurrence and development of insulin resistance, possibly associated with many complications Hara et al. Stern, S. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 10 — Bergman RN. Pediatrics 4 — The adipokine resistin, a
Ovary: Follistatin concentrations in follicular fluid of normal and polycystic ovaries. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 81 2 — Serum adiponectin and obeskty in relation to insulin resistance and markers of hyperandrogenism in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Kaplon-Cieslicka, A. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial carcinoma.
Subjects and Methods
Elizabeth Estrada. Introduction Obesity is increasing worldwide at such an alarming rate that is has been classified as an epidemic [ 1 ]. One study for example linked elevated serum resistin to an increased risk of stroke in patients with T2DM [ ]. Textbook of Diabetes.
Moreover, the reference lists of included studies and review articles were manually searched to obtain other possible relevant studies that may have been missed in the initial search. Fertility and sterility. Gerber, M. Weigert, C.
Muse, E. Cancer Sci. The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update. However, it is generally accepted that raised levels of resistin can be found in these animal models of obesity and diabetes [ 39 ].
Life Sci. Open in new tab Download slide. This would suggest the possibility of autoregulation of resistin expression levels through activation of TLR4, as well as the stimulation of expression of inflammatory cytokines.
The flow diagram of the search procedure is presented in Figure 1. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance IRis a complex chronic disorder of which the prevalence increased markedly in recent years DeFronzo et al.
Free to read.
For the seven subjects on pharmacotherapy, insulin administration the evening before blood sampling was decreased from obesity one third the normal dose and metformin was held the morning of blood sampling. Palanivel R, Maida A, Liu Y, Sweeney G Regulation of insulin signalling, glucose uptake and metabolism in rat skeletal muscle cells upon prolonged exposure to resistin.
However, resistin levels remained unchanged after 48 h of fasting with placebo administration
So far, the mechanisms of insulin-resistance related effects of resistin are not clear in humans.
In vivo, resistin aggravates atherosclerosis through stimulation of monocytes to induce vascular inflammation. And obesity closely, increasing levels of resistin are correlated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular in patients with metabolic syndrome [ ]. It is transcribed from a longer signal sequence-containing precursor, where it undergoes post-translational cleavage to form a 94 amino acid mature protein [ 42 ]. Taylor, S. The self-inhibited structure of full-length PCSK9 at 1.
Gharibeh, M. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was also extracted to obtain the effect size. Analysis of an resistim profile of genes in the human adipose tissue. Subscription will auto renew annually. Table 1. Further detailed studies are needed to conclusively address these topics. Human resistin has a role in pro-inflammatory processes that have been conclusively associated with obesity and insulin resistance.
Gastrin Ghrelin. Abstract Resistin is a novel adipocyte-secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with diabetes. Zaidi et al. PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization.
Gee resistin levels are associated with inflammation in hemodialysis patients with failed renal allografts. One study for example linked elevated serum resistin to an increased risk of stroke in patients with T2DM [ ]. Circulating resistin is increased with decreasing renal function in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. FEBS Lett. Mantzoros, M. Glucose and lipid profiles were measured using a photometric method with liquid reactants HitachiIndianapolis, IN. Jennifer H.
The initial discovery of resistin and resistin-like molecules RELMs in rodents suggested a role for these adipocytokines in molecular linkage of obesity, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Unsourced material snd be challenged and removed. Elevated resistin levels are associated with inflammation in hemodialysis patients with failed renal allografts. Initial studies supported a role for resistin in mediating insulin resistance. Because there was no effect of physiological levels of leptin on resistin levels, we studied whether resistin levels are affected by pharmacological leptin levels by measuring leptin and resistin levels immediately before and 5 h after a pharmacological dose of r-metHuLeptin was administered to 15 healthy subjects, i. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Volume
Initial studies supported a role for resistin in mediating insulin resistance. More details of the included studies are displayed in Table 1. Introduction Obesity is increasing worldwide at such an alarming rate that is has been classified as an epidemic [ 1 ]. PLoS Med 1:e About this article.
Nielsen, H. Human resistin gene: molecular scanning and evaluation of resistin gene and obesity with insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. An average solvent exposure for all disulfide bonds is 9. Whether elevation of these adipokines is a cause or a consequence of the disease still remains to be determined. Transgenic overexpression or recombinant of resistin impaired insulin function, while administration of anti-resistin antibody and antisense oligonucleotide treatment improved insulin sensitivity in mice Steppan et al.
Horm Metab — These cytokines further act to stimulate angiogenesis and metastasis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation [ 91 ].
Published : 20 May
Genetics of non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus.
More details of the included studies are displayed in Table 1. What is the effect of their elevation if found to be consequential to an inflammatory condition?
None reached acceptable heterogeneity. Seven of the groups were simple obesity Owecki et al. A study in Obwsity also found and obesity correlation in the diabetes groups and the obese non-diabetic groups Zaidi and Shirwany, Yiannakoulia MYiannakouris NBluher SMatalas AKlimis-Zakas DMantzoros C Body fat mass and macronutrient intake in relation to circulating soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations in healthy humans.
Cao H, Hegele RA. Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Open Medicine. This array has an equivalent for mouse samples, for which factors are spotted. Common genetic polymorphisms in the promoter of resistin gene are major determinants of plasma resistin concentrations in humans.
To evaluate whether diabetes mellitus per se is associated with resistin levels, we obesity the obese insulin resistant nondiabetic subjects with the T2DM subjects. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. Furthermore, a tendency to form dimers as well as trimers has been shown, facilitated by Cys22 [ 53 ]. Two authors performed the assessment independently according to the tool protocol. Visceral adipose tissue as a source of inflammation and promoter of atherosclerosis. This is only elevated to Triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds were measured twice by one observer on the right side of the body to a precision of 0.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Circulating follistatin concentrations are higher and activin concentrations are lower in polycystic ovarian syndrome. This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources.
Watanabe RM. DeFronzo, R. Obes Res. Understanding adipokine-mediated molecular signaling is critical to understanding and treating the myriad of diseases resulting from obesity. Inhibition by insulin of resistin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Figure 3. Search Menu. Identification of RELMgamma, a novel resistin-like molecule with a distinct expression pattern. In addition, considering about ajd distribution of resistin in mononuclear cells in humans, inflammation might be the process which links resistin to insulin resistance. For the interventional studies, because the data were not normally distributed, we used Wilcoxon signed ranks tests to evaluate for changes in resistin levels between d 1 and 3 of each fed or fasting admission and between time 0 and 5 h after administration of a pharmacological dose of leptin.
Resistin polymorphims, plasma resistin levels and obesity in Tunisian volunteers. For resistin, there were 20 studies comparing circulating resistin in healthy non-obese PCOS women vs. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a negative regulator of resistin gene expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Keep me logged in. Diabetologia47 323 Jan
Bokarewa MI. We present one of the first human studies on circulating resistin levels and, using a highly specific ELISA, find no evidence supporting a role for serum resistin in mediating insulin resistance or reflecting obesity in humans. Correspondence to Z.
The increase in inflammatory mediators acts as a positive feedback mechanism, further recruiting inflammatory cells to obese adipose tissue. We present one of the first human studies on circulating resistin levels and, using a highly specific ELISA, find no evidence supporting a role for serum resistin in mediating insulin resistance or reflecting obesity in humans. EMBO J. Vitam Horm.
The study design and details regarding the determination of diabetes status and diabetes-related traits have been described previously [ 23 ]. Therefore, we included 15 studies with 20 groups, a total of 1, patients. Measurement of salivary resistin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trait associations. We then compared the pattern of trait associations in the permuted samples to the original cluster of traits significant at the 0.
During the study, subjects received an isocaloric diet, as described above.
This data has been provided by curated databases and other sources that have cited the article.
Elizabeth Estrada. Therefore, we hypothesized that resistin might also play a role in insulin resistance, possibly providing new therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of diabetes.
The underlying belief among those in support of this theory is that serum resistin levels will increase with increased adiposity. Infliximab and insulin resistance. This article discusses the current research proposing to link resistin to inflammation and energy homeostasis, including its alleged role in insulin resistance in obese subjects, a subject reviewed by Vidal-Puig and O'Rahilly in and by M. Stop feeding cancer: pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23 : — Seven of the groups were simple obesity Gesistin et resistin gene and obesity. PubMed Google Scholar. Moreover, resistin mRNA expression is very low in isolated human adipocytes and does not correlate consistently with insulin resistance or obesity 21 — 23making the role of human resistin in insulin resistance unclear.
Age and obesity Rodent studies showed a clear role of resistin in the development of insulin resistance. The hormone resistin has been suggested to link obesity to type 2 diabetes by modulating steps in the insulin-signaling pathway and inducing insulin resistance. Sensitization of diabetic and obese mice to insulin by retinoid X receptor agonists. Tex Heart Inst J.
The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. Figure 7: Resistin antagonizes insulin-stimulated glucose transport in vitro. We also used the Cochrane Collaborations tool to assess the reporting quality in randomized clinical trials Higgins et al. FEBS Lett.
Preliminary investigation of follistatin gene mutations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Introduction Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance IR ressistin, is a complex chronic disorder of which the prevalence increased markedly in recent years DeFronzo et al. Understanding adipokine-mediated molecular signaling is critical to understanding and treating the myriad of diseases resulting from obesity. Discussion Recently, changes in circulating levels of resistin and follistatin in women with PCOS have been investigated; although, the results of published studies are still inconclusive. Human reproduction update.
One hundred thirty Greek middle-aged women [age Impairment of insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle cells by co-culture with human adipocytes. Moreover, Mabrouk et al. We extracted the basic information first author, year of publication, sample size, country and participant characteristics age, gender, BMI, fasting blood glucose, resistin, HOMA-IR, insulin from the articles. Identification of RELMgamma, a novel resistin-like molecule with a distinct expression pattern.